Nuclear receptor CAR-regulated expression of the FAM84A gene during the development of mouse liver tumors

Laboratory of Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.
International Journal of Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.03). 03/2011; 38(6):1511-20. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.980
Source: PubMed


The nuclear xenobiotic receptor CAR is a phenobarbital (PB)-activated transcription factor. Using a mouse model of two-step liver tumorigenesis, in which tumor growth was initiated by diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) and promoted by chronic treatment with PB, we previously demonstrated that tumors developed only in the presence of CAR. Here, we have identified the FAM84A (family with sequence similarity 84, member A) gene as a CAR-regulated gene that is over-expressed during development of phenobarbital-promoted mouse liver tumors. FAM84A mRNA was induced in the liver of DEN/PB-treated mice prior to the development of liver tumors and this induction continued in the non-tumor as well as tumor tissues of a tumor-bearing liver. Western blotting demonstated that FAM84A protein expression increased in mouse liver after PB treatment; however, the FAM84A protein in liver and liver tumors was not phosphorylated at the serine 38 residue, which has been reported to correlate with morphological changes in cells. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed the cytoplasmic localization of FAM84A protein and its expression during tumor development in normal tissues (especially in hepatocytes around the central vein), eosinophilic foci, adenomas and carcinomas. HepG2 cell-based reporter assays indicated that CAR activated the FAM84A promoter. Exogenous over-expression of FAM84A in HepG2 cells resulted in increased cell migration. The physiological function of FAM84A remains unknown, but our results suggest that FAM84A is up-regulated by CAR during the development of liver tumors, and may play an important role in the progression of liver cancer by increasing cell migration.

Download full-text


Available from: Yuichi Yamazaki, Jan 03, 2014
26 Reads
  • Source
    • "The activation of CAR results in a pleiotropic response that includes the stimulation of CYP2B isoforms, liver hypertrophy, increased cell proliferation, and the inhibition of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment with phenobarbital and phyrethrins results in the formation of altered hepatic foci and liver tumors (Elcombe et al. 2010; Kamino et al. 2011; Tien and Negishi 2006). In these cases, CYP2B isoforms promote cancer, which is consistent with the results observed in our work. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of cancer chemoprevention with caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in the resistant hepatocyte model of hepatocarcinogenesis have shown the participation of CYP drug metabolizing enzymes. To prevent neoplastic and preneoplasic lesions, we must specifically identify which CYP activities are modified in the mechanism of action of CAPE. Male Fischer-344 rats were pretreated with CAPE twelve hours before administration of diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and were sacrificed twelve hours after CAPE and twelve hours, twenty-four hours, twenty-four days, and twelve months after DEN. Other rats were treated with the CYP inhibitors α-naphthoflavone or SKF525A and sacrificed twenty-four hours and twenty-four days after DEN. Microsomes were obtained from livers to quantify protein using Western blot. Diethylnitrosamine metabolism was measured based on nitrite formation and liver histology using GGT histochemistry. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester diminished the protein levels of CYP1A2 and CYP2B1/2. The inhibition of CYP2B1/2 prevented the appearance of preneoplastic lesions. Microsomal assays demonstrated that CAPE interfered with DEN activation diminishing nitrites similar to SKF525A and probably mediated by CYP2B1/2 inhibition. A single dose of CAPE before DEN treatment reduced the appearance of tumors by 43%. These results confirmed that CAPE is a promising agent to confer chemoprotection in liver cancer and should be considered for human therapies.
    Toxicologic Pathology 01/2012; 40(3):466-72. DOI:10.1177/0192623311431947 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) acts as an early mediator in inflammation and organ injury. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury induces HMGB1 translocation and expression in ischemic areas. However, it is unknown whether selective warm liver I/R injury also induces the expression of HMGB1 in non-ischemic lobes. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that selective liver I/R injury also causes HMGB1 translocation and up-regulates its expression in non-ischemic liver areas. In the present study, selective I/R injury was induced by clamping the median and left lateral liver lobes for 90 min followed by 0.5, 6 and 24 h reperfusion. We used male inbred Lewis rats; six animals for each point in time and six animals for the normal control group. Selective hepatic I/R injury induced morphological changes not only in ischemic lobes but also in non-ischemic lobes. HMGB1 translocation and expression was increased in a time-dependent manner in the ischemic lobes, and increased in with delayed onset in the non-ischemic lobes. Serum HMGB1 levels were increased after reperfusion. Furthermore, liver I/R injury up-regulated the expression of HMGB1 receptors (Toll-like receptor 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products and pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6) in both ischemic lobes, however, the up-regulation of these cytokines was more prominent in the ischemic lobes. In conclusion, selective warm I/R induces a substantial "sympathetic/bystander" effect on the non-ischemic lobes in terms of HMGB1 translocation and local cytokine production.
    Histochemie 03/2011; 135(5):443-52. DOI:10.1007/s00418-011-0802-6 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocarcinogenesis is a multistep process involving different genetic alterations that ultimately lead to malignant transformation of the hepatocyte. The liver is one of the main targets for different metastatic foci, but it represents an important and frequent locus of degeneration in the course of chronic disease. In fact, Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the outcome of the natural history of chronic liver diseases, from the condition of fibrosis, to cirrhosis and finally to cancer. HCC is the sixth most common cancer in the world, some 630,000 new cases being diagnosed each year. Furthermore, about the 80% of people with HCC, have seen their clinical history developing from fibrosis, to cirrhosis and finally to cancer. The three main causes of HCC development are represented by HBV, HCV infection and alcoholism. Moreover, metabolic disease [starting from Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)] and, with reduced frequency, some autoimmune disease may lead to HCC development. An additional rare cause of carcinogenetic degeneration of the liver, especially developed in African and Asian Countries, is represented by aflatoxin B1. The mechanisms by which these etiologic factors may induce HCC development involve a wide range of pathway and molecules, currently under investigation. In summary, the hepatocarcionogenesis results from a multifactorial process leading to the common condition of genetic changes in mature hepatocytes mainly characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and cell death. Advances in understanding the mechanism of action are fundamental for the development of new potential therapies and results primarily from the association of the research activities coming from basic and clinical science. This review article analyzes the current models used in basic research to investigate HCC activity, and the advances obtained from a basic and clinical point of view.
    07/2013; 1(2):15. DOI:10.3978/j.issn.2305-5839.2013.01.06
Show more