Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Carnosine on Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Amyloid Pathology, and Cognitive Deficits in 3xTg-AD Mice
ABSTRACT The pathogenic road map leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still not completely understood; however, a large body of studies in the last few years supports the idea that beside the classic hallmarks of the disease, namely the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles, other factors significantly contribute to the initiation and the progression of the disease. Among them, mitochondria failure, an unbalanced neuronal redox state, and the dyshomeostasis of endogenous metals like copper, iron, and zinc have all been reported to play an important role in exacerbating AD pathology. Given these factors, the endogenous peptide carnosine may be potentially beneficial in the treatment of AD because of its free-radical scavenger and metal chelating properties.
In this study, we explored the effect of L-carnosine supplementation in the 3xTg-AD mouse, an animal model of AD that shows both Aβ- and tau-dependent pathology.
We found that carnosine supplementation in 3xTg-AD mice promotes a strong reduction in the hippocampal intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ and completely rescues AD and aging-related mitochondrial dysfunctions. No effects were found on tau pathology and we only observed a trend toward the amelioration of cognitive deficits.
Our data indicate that carnosine can be part of a combined therapeutic approach for the treatment of AD.
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ABSTRACT: Collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the protonated carnosine-oxaliplatin complex, [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) using several collision energies were shown to yield nine different fragment ions. Energy-resolved CID experiments on [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) showed that the generation of the product ion [Carnosine - H + Pt(dach)](+) (where dach is 1,2-diaminocyclohexane) is the lowest energy process. At slightly higher collision energies, the loss of neutral carnosine from [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) to produce [OxPt + H](+) was observed, followed by the loss of oxaliplatin from the same precursor ion to produce [Carnosine + H](+). At significantly higher energies, the ion [OxPt - CO2 + H](+) was shown to be formed, while the last two investigated ions [Carnosine + OxPt - CO2 + H](+) and [Carnosine - NH3 - H + Pt(dach)](+) did not attain any significant relative abundance. Density functional calculations at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level were employed to probe the fragmentation mechanisms that account for all experimental data. The lowest free energy barriers for the generation of each of the ions [Carnosine - H + Pt(dach)](+), [OxPt + H](+), [Carnosine + H](+), [Carnosine + OxPt - CO2 + H](+) and [Carnosine - NH3 - H + Pt(dach)](+) from [Carnosine + OxPt + H](+) according to the fragmentation mechanisms offered here were calculated to be 31.9, 38.8, 49.3, 75.2, and 85.6 kcal mol(-1), respectively.Dalton Transactions 10/2014; DOI:10.1039/c4dt02217c · 4.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cattle encephalon glycoside and ignotin injection (CEGI), a multitargeted neurotrophic drug, has been widely used in the treatment of central and peripheral nerve injuries, such as stroke, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and diabetic neuropathy in the People's Republic of China. However, data regarding the effect of CEGI on Alzheimer's disease (AD) remain scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of CEGI on learning and memory in an APPswe/PS1dE9 double-transgenic mouse model, a suitable animal model of AD, and elucidate its possible mechanisms. Five-month-old APP/PS1 mice were intraperitoneally administered 6.6 mL/kg or 13.2 mL/kg of CEGI for 1 month. After 1 month of administration, all mice received Morris water maze training and a probe test. Mouse brain sections were detected by standard biochemical and immunohistochemical measures. CEGI treatment significantly improved the spatial learning and memory deficits and decreased cerebral amyloid-β42 levels in brain homogenates of APP/PS1 mice. CEGI treatment elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase, and reduced the levels of malondialdehyde. CEGI attenuated neuronal damage in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice and upregulated protein and gene expression of Bcl-2 and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. CEGI treatment decreased the number of Iba1(+) activated microglia in the cortex of the APP/PS1 mice. Our results showed that CEGI prevents memory impairment, possibly by decreasing the amyloid-β42 levels in APP/PS1 mice and inhibiting oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation, making CEGI a promising therapeutic agent for AD.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 02/2015; 11:537-48. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S78025 · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The molecular basis for the carnosine-induced activation of intestinal epithelial cells was studied and subsequently we focused on whether carnosine stimulates a brain–gut interaction. To assess this, we investigated changes in intestinal epithelial cells induced by carnosine. Our results showed that carnosine activated Caco-2 cells, resulting in the secretion of various factors (including neurotrophic factors), and leading to the induction of neurite growth in SY-SY5Y cells. We then conducted DNA microarray analysis to reveal global changes in Caco-2 cells via treatment with carnosine. The expression of 745 genes significantly changed upon carnosine treatment. Furthermore, cluster analysis showed that several of these genes were related to secretory proteins, membrane protein/transporters, and calcium channel/transport protein. Some of these genes would explain the mechanism of carnosine action, especially considering stimulation of the brain–gut interaction.Journal of Functional Foods 03/2015; 13. DOI:10.1016/j.jff.2014.12.024 · 4.48 Impact Factor