Cancer immunotherapy has developed into a field of intense study as aspects of the immune system involved in the eradication of cancer have become delineated. Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive, facultative intracellular bacterium which infects antigen presenting cells (APC), and is being used as a cancer vaccine to deliver tumor antigens directly to the APC. This results in the generation of a strong immune response towards the tumor associated antigen and direct targeting of the tumor by the immune system. Advances in this field have led to the development of a series of L. monocytogenes-based cancer vaccines, which are currently in clinical trials. A phase I study has shown these vaccines can be safely administered and well-tolerated in terminal stage cancer patients and an efficacy signal was observed in patients who did not respond to other therapies. Additional data on the efficacy of these vaccines is expected in the near-term.
"Various methods of bioengineering allow Lm to express TSA on the plasmid or in the genome via chromosomal insertion [23, 24]. At Advaxis, two complementation mechanisms have been designed for the in vivo retention of plasmids in attenuated bacterial strains. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HPV infection is a direct cause of neoplasia and malignancy. Cellular immunologic activity against cells expressing HPV E6 and E7 is sufficient to eliminate the presence of dysplastic or neoplastic tissue driven by HPV infection. Live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes- (Lm-) based immunotherapy (ADXS11-001) has been developed for the treatment of HPV-associated diseases. ADXS11-001 secretes an antigen-adjuvant fusion (Lm-LLO) protein consisting of a truncated fragment of the Lm protein listeriolysin O (LLO) fused to HPV-16 E7. In preclinical models, this construct has been found to stimulate immune responses and affect therapeutic outcome. ADXS11-001 is currently being evaluated in Phase 2 clinical trials for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, cervical cancer, and HPV-positive head and neck cancer. The use of a live attenuated bacterium is a more complex and complete method of cancer immunotherapy, as over millennia Lm has evolved to infect humans and humans have evolved to prevent and reject this infection over millennia. This evolution has resulted in profound pathogen-associated immune mechanisms which are genetically conserved, highly efficacious, resistant to tolerance, and can be uniquely invoked using this novel platform technology.
Journal of Oncology 02/2012; 2012:542851. DOI:10.1155/2012/542851
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccines are currently available for many infectious diseases caused by several microbes and the prevention of disease and death by vaccination has profoundly improved public health globally. However, vaccines are not yet licensed for use against many other infectious diseases and new or improved vaccines are needed to replace suboptimal vaccines, and against newly emerging pathogens. Most of the vaccines currently licensed for human use include live attenuated and inactivated or killed microorganisms. Only a small subset is based on purified components and even fewer are recombinantly produced. Novel approaches in recombinant DNA technology, genomics and structural biology have revolutionized the way vaccine candidates are developed and will make a significant impact in the generation of safer and more effective vaccines.
Current opinion in immunology 04/2012; 24(3):337-42. DOI:10.1016/j.coi.2012.03.013 · 7.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunological adjuvants that induce T cell-mediate immunity (TCMI) with the least side effects are needed for the development of human vaccines. Glycoinositolphospholipids (GIPL) and CpGs oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs) derived from the protozoa parasite Trypanosoma cruzi induce potent pro-inflammatory reaction through activation of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)4 and TLR9, respectively. Here, using mouse models, we tested the T. cruzi derived TLR agonists as immunological adjuvants in an antitumor vaccine. For comparison, we used well-established TLR agonists, such as the bacterial derived monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL), lipopeptide (Pam3Cys), and CpG ODN. All tested TLR agonists were comparable to induce antibody responses, whereas significant differences were noticed in their ability to elicit CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell responses. In particular, both GIPLs (GTH, and GY) and CpG ODNs (B344, B297 and B128) derived from T. cruzi elicited interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production by CD4(+) T cells. On the other hand, the parasite derived CpG ODNs, but not GIPLs, elicited a potent IFN-γ response by CD8(+) T lymphocytes. The side effects were also evaluated by local pain (hypernociception). The intensity of hypernociception induced by vaccination was alleviated by administration of an analgesic drug without affecting protective immunity. Finally, the level of protective immunity against the NY-ESO-1 expressing melanoma was associated with the magnitude of both CD4(+) T and CD8(+) T cell responses elicited by a specific immunological adjuvant.
PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e36245. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0036245 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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