Environmental lead pollution and elevated blood lead levels among children in a rural area of China.

Fujian Provincial Centre for Prevention and Control of Occupational Diseases and Chemical Poisoning, Fuzhou, China.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.23). 03/2011; 101(5):834-41. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2010.193656
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China.
In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression.
Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year.
Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of toxic heavy metal co-exposure on DNA oxidative damage in neonates from a primitive e-waste recycling region, Guiyu town, China. Our participants included 201 pregnant women: 126 from Guiyu town and 75 from Jinping district of Shantou city, where no e-waste recycling and dismantling activities existed. Structured interview questionnaires were administered to the pregnant women and umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected after delivery. The UCB concentrations of lead, cadmium, chromium, and nickel were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Levels of UCB plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, a DNA oxidative damage biomarker) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our results suggested that UCB lead and cadmium concentrations in neonates of Guiyu were significantly higher than those of Jinping (lead: median 110.45ng/mL vs. 57.31ng/mL; cadmium: median 2.50ng/mL vs. 0.33ng/mL, both P<0.001). Parents' residence in Guiyu, and parents' work related to e-waste recycling were the risk factors associated with neonate's UCB lead and cadmium levels. No significant difference of UCB plasma 8-OHdG levels was found between Guiyu and the control area. After adjusting for potential confounders, cord plasma 8-OHdG concentrations (ng/mL) were positively associated with blood cadmium (β=0.126ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.055 to 0.198ng/mL), chromium (β=0.086ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.014 to 0.158ng/mL) and nickel (β=0.215ng/mL, 95% CI: 0.113 to 0.317ng/mL) concentrations. The primitive e-waste recycling and dismantling activities may contribute to the elevated umbilical cord blood toxic heavy metal levels in neonates born in Guiyu. Exposures to cadmium, chromium and nickel were associated with increased oxidative DNA damage in neonates.
    Science of The Total Environment 11/2013; 472C:354-362. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.11.032 · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Children's blood lead levels and prevalence of lead poisoning in China are significantly higher than in developed countries, though a substantial decrease has been observed. Since 2011, strict lead control policies in lead-related industries have been implemented in China, but the success of these policies is unknown. In this study, we collected environmental samples, questionnaire data, and blood samples from 106 children from 1 to 14 years old, before and after implementation of lead-usage control policy in wire rope factories by local government in Zhuhang, Nantong in 2012. Results showed that, one year after the lead control, lead concentrations sharply decreased in both environmental and biological samples with a decrease of 0.43 μg/m3 (-84.3%) in ambient air samples, 0.22 mg/kg (-36.1%) in vegetable samples, 441.1 mg/kg (-43.7%) in dust samples, and 6.24 μg/dL (-51.5%) in childhood blood lead levels (BLL). This study demonstrates the success of lead control policies in promoting the prevention and control of childhood lead poisoning in Nantong, China.
    Environmental Science and Technology 10/2014; 48(21). DOI:10.1021/es502994j · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health concern worldwide. Blood lead levels exceeding 5μgdL(-1) are considered elevated. In Kabwe, the capital of Zambia's Central Province, extensive Pb contamination of township soils in the vicinity of a Pb-Zn mine and posing serious health risk to children has been reported. We investigated BLLs in children under the age of 7years in townships around the mine; where blood samples were collected and analyzed using an ICP-MS. All of the sampled children had BLLs exceeding 5μgdL(-1). Children in these areas could be at serious risk of Pb toxicity as 18% of the sampled children in Chowa, 57% (Kasanda) and 25% (Makululu) had BLLs exceeding 65μgdL(-1). Eight children had BLLs exceeding 150μgdL(-1) with the maximum being 427.8μgdL(-1). We recommend that medical intervention be commenced in the children with BLL exceeding 45μgdL(-1).
    Chemosphere 10/2014; 119C:941-947. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.028 · 3.50 Impact Factor