Environmental Lead Pollution and Elevated Blood Lead Levels Among Children in a Rural Area of China
ABSTRACT We investigated environmental lead pollution and its impact on children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in a rural area of China.
In 2007, we studied 379 children younger than 15 years living in 7 villages near lead mines and processing plants, along with a control group of 61 children from another village. We determined their BLLs and collected environmental samples, personal data, and information on other potential exposures. We followed approximately 86% of the children who had high BLLs (> 15 μg/dL) for 1 year. We determined factors influencing BLLs by multivariate linear regression.
Lead concentrations in soil and household dust were much higher in polluted villages than in the control village, and more children in the polluted area than in the control village had elevated BLLs (87%, 16.4 μg/dL vs 20%, 7.1 μg/dL). Increased BLL was independently associated with environmental lead levels. We found a significant reduction of 5 micrograms per deciliter when we retested children after 1 year.
Our data show that the lead industry caused serious environmental pollution that led to high BLLs in children living nearby.
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- ". One of these described mercury exposure from gold mining in Indonesia , and one described blood lead levels in teenagers employed in an auto repair business in Turkey . Two studies described occupational take-home exposures of lead in children living with parents who were employed in mining and smelting industries  . Worker education and improved industrial hygiene practices are well-known interventions that could be implemented and have been effective in reducing occupational take-home exposures in developed countries. "
ABSTRACT: Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.International Journal of Pediatrics 01/2013; 2013(4):872596. DOI:10.1155/2013/872596
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between lead powder use, as folk skin care, and blood lead level (BLL) in children, we studied 222 children up to 14-years old living in a Chinese rural area and administered a face to face interview with their parents to collect information on lead powder use and other potential exposure. We measured children's BLL at baseline and 2 years later after an intervention. The children were divided into three categories according to their use of lead powder: regular use, irregular use and never use. We applied multivariate linear regression to determine the association between lead powder use and elevated BLL. The average BLL of all children was 18 μg/dl; 56% of them had BLL of 10 μg/dl or higher. Lead powder use was significantly associated with elevated BLL. After adjusting for potential confounders the BLL of regular and irregular users was higher than non-users by 3.11 μg/dl and 1.47 μg/dl, respectively. Duration of lead powder use was positively associated with BLL, but the time since last use was inversely associated. A significant BLL reduction was observed 2 years later, and the greatest reduction (21 μg/dl) was seen in the youngest group of regular users. This study showed that traditional use of lead powder for a skin care purpose was a major contributor to elevated BLL in these children.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 12/2011; 22(2):198-203. DOI:10.1038/jes.2011.46 · 3.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Exposure to lead early in life may be a risk factor for fetal growth, but little is known about the effects of low-level prenatal lead exposure on birth outcomes. We measured maternal and cord blood lead levels and examined their associations with birth outcomes. Mother-infant pairs (n = 252) were recruited from a rural area located on the south coast of Laizhou Bay between 2010 and 2011. The median levels of maternal and cord blood lead were 3.20 and 2.52 μg/dL, respectively. Increasing maternal blood lead exposure was associated with decreasing birth weight (β = -148.99; 95% CI, -286.33 to -11.66), and a significant negative relationship was found between cord blood lead levels and birth length (β = -0.84; 95% CI, -1.52 to -0.16). Low-level prenatal lead exposure may adversely affect fetal growth. These results may be important for public health and have implications regarding the recommended blood lead levels.Environmental Pollution 01/2013; 175C:30-34. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2012.12.013 · 4.14 Impact Factor