An ENU-induced mouse mutant of SHIP1 reveals a critical role of the stem cell isoform for suppression of macrophage activation.
ABSTRACT In a recessive ENU mutagenesis screen for embryonic lethality, we identified a mouse pedigree with a missense mutation of SHIP1 (SHIP1(el20)) leading to an amino acid substitution I641T in the inositol-5'-phosphatase domain that represses phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling. Despite detectable expression of functional SHIP1 protein, the phenotype of homozygous SHIP1(el20/el20) mice was more severe than gene-targeted SHIP1-null (SHIP1(-/-)) mice. Compared with age-matched SHIP1(-/-) mice, 5-week-old SHIP1(el20/el20) mice had increased myeloid cells, serum IL-6 levels, marked reductions in lymphoid cells, and died by 7 weeks of age with infiltration of the lungs by activated macrophages. Bone marrow transplantation demonstrated that these defects were hematopoietic-cell-autonomous. We show that the el20 mutation reduces expression in SHIP1(el20/el20) macrophages of both SHIP1 and s-SHIP, an isoform of SHIP1 generated by an internal promoter. In contrast, SHIP1(-/-) macrophages express normal levels of s-SHIP. Compound heterozygous mice (SHIP1(-/el20)) had the same phenotype as SHIP1(-/-) mice, thus providing genetic proof that the more severe phenotype of SHIP1(el20/el20) mice is probably the result of concomitant loss of SHIP1 and s-SHIP. Our results suggest that s-SHIP synergizes with SHIP1 for suppression of macrophage activation, thus providing the first evidence for a role of s-SHIP in adult hematopoiesis.
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ABSTRACT: The SH2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) is a 5' inositol phosphatase known to negatively regulate the product of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K), PI(3,4,5)P(3). SHIP-1 can be recruited to a large number of inhibitory receptors expressed on NK cells. However, its role in natural killer (NK) cell development, maturation, and functions is not well defined. In this study, we found that the absence of SHIP-1 results in a loss of peripheral NK cells. However, using chimeric mice we demonstrated that SHIP-1 expression is not required intrinsically for NK cell lineage development. In contrast, SHIP-1 is required cell autonomously for NK cell terminal differentiation. These findings reveal both a direct and indirect role for SHIP-1 at different NK cell development checkpoints. Notably, SHIP-1 deficient NK cells display an impaired ability to secrete IFN-γ during cytokine receptor mediated responses while ITAM containing receptor-mediated responses is not affected. Taken together, our results provide novel insights on how SHIP-1 participates in the development, maturation, and effector functions of NK cells.Blood 10/2012; · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The precise regulation of phosphoinositide lipids in cellular membranes is crucial for cellular survival and function. Inositol 5-phosphatases have been implicated in a variety of disorders, including various cancers, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and rare genetic conditions. Despite the obvious impact on human health, relatively little structural and biochemical information is available for this family. Here, we review recent structural and mechanistic work on the 5-phosphatases with a focus on OCRL, whose loss of function results in oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and Dent 2 disease. Studies of OCRL emphasize how the actions of 5-phosphatases rely on both intrinsic and extrinsic membrane recognition properties for full catalytic function. Additionally, structural analysis of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of OCRL provides insight into the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease.Trends in Biochemical Sciences 02/2012; 37(4):134-43. · 13.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SHIP-1 has an important role in controlling immune cell function through its ability to downmodulate PI3K signaling pathways that regulate cell survival and responses to stimulation. Mice deficient in SHIP-1 display several chronic inflammatory phenotypes including antibody-mediated autoimmune disease, Crohn's disease-like ileitis and a lung disease reminiscent of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The ileum and lungs of SHIP-1-deficient mice are infiltrated at an early age with abundant myeloid cells and the mice have a limited lifespan primarily thought to be due to the consolidation of lungs with spontaneously activated macrophages. To determine whether the myeloid compartment is the key initiator of inflammatory disease in SHIP-1-deficient mice, we examined two independent strains of mice harboring myeloid-restricted deletion of SHIP-1. Contrary to expectations, conditional deletion of SHIP-1 in myeloid cells did not result in consolidating pneumonia or segmental ileitis typical of germline SHIP-1 deficiency. In addition, other myeloid cell abnormalities characteristic of germline loss of SHIP-1, including flagrant splenomegaly and enhanced myelopoiesis, were absent in mice lacking SHIP-1 in myeloid cells. This study indicates that the spontaneous inflammatory disease characteristic of germline SHIP-1 deficiency is not initiated solely by LysM-positive myeloid cells but requires the simultaneous loss of SHIP-1 in other hematolymphoid lineages.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 6 March 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2014.9.Genes and immunity 03/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor