An ENU-induced mouse mutant of SHIP1 reveals a critical role of the stem cell isoform for suppression of macrophage activation
ABSTRACT In a recessive ENU mutagenesis screen for embryonic lethality, we identified a mouse pedigree with a missense mutation of SHIP1 (SHIP1(el20)) leading to an amino acid substitution I641T in the inositol-5'-phosphatase domain that represses phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling. Despite detectable expression of functional SHIP1 protein, the phenotype of homozygous SHIP1(el20/el20) mice was more severe than gene-targeted SHIP1-null (SHIP1(-/-)) mice. Compared with age-matched SHIP1(-/-) mice, 5-week-old SHIP1(el20/el20) mice had increased myeloid cells, serum IL-6 levels, marked reductions in lymphoid cells, and died by 7 weeks of age with infiltration of the lungs by activated macrophages. Bone marrow transplantation demonstrated that these defects were hematopoietic-cell-autonomous. We show that the el20 mutation reduces expression in SHIP1(el20/el20) macrophages of both SHIP1 and s-SHIP, an isoform of SHIP1 generated by an internal promoter. In contrast, SHIP1(-/-) macrophages express normal levels of s-SHIP. Compound heterozygous mice (SHIP1(-/el20)) had the same phenotype as SHIP1(-/-) mice, thus providing genetic proof that the more severe phenotype of SHIP1(el20/el20) mice is probably the result of concomitant loss of SHIP1 and s-SHIP. Our results suggest that s-SHIP synergizes with SHIP1 for suppression of macrophage activation, thus providing the first evidence for a role of s-SHIP in adult hematopoiesis.
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ABSTRACT: An important mediator of cytokine signaling implicated in regulation of hematopoiesis is the PI3K/protein kinase B (PKB/c-Akt) signaling module. Constitutive activation of this signaling module has been observed in a large group of leukemias. Because activation of this signaling pathway has been demonstrated to be sufficient to induce hematologic malignancies and is thought to correlate with poor prognosis and enhanced drug resistance, it is considered to be a promising target for therapy. A high number of pharmacologic inhibitors directed against either individual or multiple components of this pathway have already been developed to improve therapy. In this review, the safety and efficacy of both single and dual-specificity inhibitors will be discussed as well as the potential of combination therapy with either inhibitors directed against other signal transduction molecules or classic chemotherapy.Blood 11/2011; 119(4):911-23. DOI:10.1182/blood-2011-07-366203 · 10.43 Impact Factor
- Acute Leukemia - The Scientist's Perspective and Challenge, 12/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-553-2
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ABSTRACT: The predominant expression of the γ and δ isoforms of PI3K in cells of hematopoietic lineage prompted speculation that inhibitors of these isoforms could offer opportunities for selective targeting of PI3K in the immune system in a range of immune-related pathologies. While there has been some success in developing PI3Kδ inhibitors, progress in developing selective inhibitors of PI3Kγ has been rather disappointing. This has prompted the search for alternative targets with which to modulate PI3K signaling specifically in the immune system. One such target is the SH2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) which de-phosphorylates PI(3,4,5)P(3) at the D5 position of the inositol ring to create PI(3,4)P(2). In this article, we first describe the current state of PI3K isoform-selective inhibitor development. We then focus on the structure of SHIP-1 and its function in the immune system. Finally, we consider the current state of development of small molecule compounds that potently and selectively modulate SHIP activity and which offer novel opportunities to manipulate PI3K mediated signaling in the immune system.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2012; 3:226. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00226