Toll-like receptors in normal and malignant human bladders.
ABSTRACT Toll-like receptors have a major role in the innate immune response. They are expressed by immune cells and some epithelial cells. To study the role of urothelial cells in the intrabladder innate immune response we analyzed toll-like receptor expression and functionality in normal and malignant urothelial cells.
Toll-like receptor 1 to 10 mRNA expression was analyzed using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in 4 primary cultures of normal urothelium and 15 bladder cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect toll-like receptor expression in 11 normal urothelial samples and 26 bladder tumors. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion by toll-like receptor agonist or bacillus Calmette-Guérin treated cultured cells was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blot and nuclear factor-κB localization was assessed by confocal microscopy.
Expression of most toll-like receptor mRNA was detected in cultured normal or tumor urothelial cells. Expression of toll-like receptors 2 to 4, 5, 7 and 9 protein was detected in all normal urothelial samples and most nonmuscle invasive tumors, although its intensity was decreased in the latter. Expression was markedly decreased in muscle invasive tumors. Treatment with toll-like receptor 2 and 3 agonists showed the strongest inflammatory response in 2 primary cultures of normal urothelial cells and 3 bladder cancer cell lines. Toll-like receptor 2 and 3 functionality was confirmed by the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB and the induction of phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein-kinase.
Toll-like receptors are expressed in normal urothelium and nonmuscle invasive bladder tumors. In cultured urothelial cells agonist inducible toll-like receptor 2 or constitutively expressed toll-like receptor 3 is functional. These data suggest the potential use of toll-like receptor agonists for antitumor immunotherapy of nonmuscle invasive tumors.
Article: Effects of P-MAPA Immunomodulator on Toll-Like Receptors and p53: Potential Therapeutic Strategies for Infectious Diseases and Cancer.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Compounds that can act as agonists for toll-like receptors (TLRs) may be promising candidates for the development of drugs against infectious diseases and cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of P-MAPA on TLRs in vitro and in vivo, as well as to investigate its potential as adjuvant therapy in infectious diseases and cancer. For these purposes, the activity of P-MAPA on TLRs was assayed in vitro through NF-κB activation in HEK293 cells expressing a given TLR, and using an in vivo animal model for bladder cancer (BC). The antimicrobial activity of P-MAPA was tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) in vitro in an MIC assay, and in vivo using an aerosol infection model of murine tuberculosis. Antitumor effects of P-MAPA were tested in an animal model with experimentally induced BC. Moxifloxacin (MXF) and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were used as positive controls in the animal models. The results showed that P-MAPA, administered alone or in combination with MXF, induced significant responses in vivo against TB. In contrast, the compound did not show antimicrobial activity in vitro. P-MAPA showed a significant stimulatory effect on human TLR2 and TLR4 in vitro. In BC, TLR2, TLR4 and p53 protein levels were significantly higher in the P-MAPA group than in the BCG group. The most common histopathological changes in each group were papillary carcinoma in BC group, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in BCG group and simple hyperplasia in P-MAPA group. Concerning the toxicological analysis performed during BC treatment, P-MAPA did not show evidence for hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. In conclusion, P-MAPA acted as TLR ligand in vitro and improved the immunological status in BC, increasing TLR2 and TLR4 protein levels. P-MAPA immunotherapy was more effective in restoring p53 and TLRs reactivities and showed significantly greater antitumor activity than BCG. The activation of TLRs and p53 may provide a hypothetical mechanism for the therapeutic effects in both cancer and infectious diseases. Taken together data obtained will encourage the further investigation of P-MAPA as a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases.Infectious Agents and Cancer 06/2012; 7(1):14.