Immunoadjuvant activities of a recombinant chicken IL-12 in chickens vaccinated with Newcastle disease virus recombinant HN protein
ABSTRACT Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/HN) expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene and rFPV/HN/chIL-12 co-expressing chicken IL-12 (chIL-12) and HN (rHN/chIL-12) genes have been characterized. rHN/chIL-12 or rchIL-12, expressed by our previous construct rFPV/chIL-12, co-administered with rHN was assessed for adjuvant activities of chIL-12. Chickens were vaccinated with various amounts of rHN/chIL-12 mixed with mineral oil (MO), intramuscularly. Levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody production depended on the concentration of the injected rHN or rHN/chIL-12. The lower HI antibody titers were obtained in chicken groups rHN/chIL-12/7-rHN/chIL-12/9, receiving 60ng rHN/8ng chIL-12 with MO, 30ng rHN/4ng chIL-12 with MO or 15ng rHN/2ng chIL-12 with MO, respectively, compared to those in chicken groups rHN/7-rHN/9, receiving rHN with MO alone. However, chickens in group rHN/chIL-12/7 or rHN/chIL-12/8 and rHN with MO alone showed the same effective protection. Chicken group rHN/chIL-12/9 was even more protective than that in group rHN/9. When rchIL-12 was co-injected with 15ng rHN plus MO, chickens produced low levels of HI antibody titers; while higher levels of IFN-γ production and an effective protection rate (83%) were obtained. On the other hand, low levels of IFN-γ production and low protection response (50%) were obtained in chickens injected with rHN with MO alone. Taken together, when the concentration of rHN decreased to certain levels, rchIL-12 reduced HI antibody production. The increase in the induction of IFN-γ production might suggest the enhancement of the cell-mediated immunity which conferred the protection from the NDV challenge.
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ABSTRACT: Interleukin-12 (IL-12), an important immunomodulator for cell-mediated immunity, shows significant potential as a vaccine adjuvant and anticancer therapeutic in mammals. Therapeutic strategies to develop mammalian IL-12 as a vaccine adjuvant/immunomodulator for promoting cellular immunity and establishing a Th1-biased immune response further support the potential value of ChIL-12. Transgenic plants show promise as scalable bioproduction platforms for challenging biopharmaceutical proteins. We have expressed, characterized, and purified biologically active ChIL-12 in plants using a rapid Agrobacterium-mediated tobacco plant-based transient expression system. To ensure the stoichiometric expression and assembly of p35 and p40, we expressed a single-chain version of chicken IL-12 (ChIL-12). A histidine 6x tag was used for identity and purification of ChIL-12(His) protein. Our results demonstrated precise cleavage of the endogenous chicken p40 signal peptide in plants as well as addition of N-linked glycans. Biological activity was confirmed in vitro by interferon-gamma secretion of ChIL-12-treated chicken splenocytes. In addition, splenocytes treated with ChIL-12 expressed with or without the His tag demonstrated comparable ChIFN-gamma induction. These studies indicate that plant-based platforms for bioproduction of complex pharmaceutical proteins produce functional ChIL-12 and provide key advantages in safety, scale, and cost-effective platform for veterinary vaccine and therapeutic applications.Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 03/2010; 30(3):143-54. DOI:10.1089/jir.2009.0040
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ABSTRACT: Circulation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has posed a great threat for the poultry industry worldwide. Antibodies against Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN), a membrane protein of NDV with critical roles in NDV infection, have been reported to provide chickens protection from NDV infection. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the in vivo antibody responses against the linear antigenic domains of the HN protein from genotype VII NDV using a yeast surface display system. The results revealed four distinct regions of HN, P1 (1-52aa), P2 (53-192aa), P3 (193-302aa) and P4 (303-571aa), respectively, according to their antigenic potency. Analysis by FACS and ELISA assay indicated P2 to be the dominant linear antigenic domain, with the immunogenic potency to protect the majority of chickens from NDV challenge. In contrast, the P1, P3 and P4 domains showed weak antigenicity in vivo and could not protect chickens from NDV challenge. These results provide important insight into the characteristic of humoral immune responses elicited by HN of NDV in vivo.PLoS ONE 06/2015; 10(6):e0131723. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131723