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    • "Furthermore, traveling for educational congresses or attending CME programs by support of pharmaceutical companies affects their prescription practices and increases non-rational prescribing.[33] Of course in Iran, there is a center located in FDO that audits all prescriptions of physicians to prevent irrational use of drugs[34] and this partly controls such unethical relations between pharmaceutical companies and physicians, but it is not enough as there are still lots of problems in irrational use of drugs in Iran such as antibiotics or analgesics.[353637] It has to be added that world pharmaceutical market is full of such bad behaviors and Iran is not an exception as most of the famous pharmaceutical companies have representatives in Iran and as a matter of fact they have invested and focused on Iranian market.[38] "
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacists as one of health-care providers face ethical issues in terms of pharmaceutical care, relationship with patients and cooperation with the health-care team. Other than pharmacy, there are pharmaceutical companies in various fields of manufacturing, importing or distributing that have their own ethical issues. Therefore, pharmacy practice is vulnerable to ethical challenges and needs special code of conducts. On feeling the need, based on a shared project between experts of the ethics from relevant research centers, all the needs were fully recognized and then specified code of conduct for each was written. The code of conduct was subject to comments of all experts involved in the pharmaceutical sector and thus criticized in several meetings. The prepared code of conduct is comprised of professional code of ethics for pharmacists, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical manufacturers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical importers, ethics guideline for pharmaceutical distributors, and ethics guideline for policy makers. The document was compiled based on the principles of bioethics and professionalism. The compiling the code of ethics for the national pharmaceutical system is the first step in implementing ethics in pharmacy practice and further attempts into teaching the professionalism and the ethical code as the necessary and complementary effort are highly recommended.
    Journal of research in medical sciences 05/2013; 18(5):442-448. · 0.65 Impact Factor
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    • "Irrational drug use is a problem of the most developing countries.[7] Numerous studies have been conducted to determine the pattern of drug use and its causes in Iran.[138910] The best examples are studies have been conducted by Farshchi et al. and Nikfar et al., on drugs like diphenoxylate tablet[11] or nitroglycerin ampoule[12] which have interesting reasons behind their irrational use. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Pharmacists have a remarkable role in rational use of drugs by dissemination of drug information to guide patients, physicians, and policy makers. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the pharmacists’ view point about the main factors affecting current drug use pattern regarding rational drug use and the most effective strategies for improving and promoting rational drug use among pharmacists. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, pre-designed questionnaires were filled in convenient sampling by pharmacists who had attended the congress of rational drug use in Tehran, Iran. Findings: A total of 144 pharmacists with the average age of 40.78 years old were enrolled to the study. Data indicated that the most priorities in irrational use of drugs from pharmacists’ view point were lack of appropriate cooperation and communication between physicians and pharmacists (39%), pharmacists’ low tariff and economic issues (34%), lack of public knowledge about drug usage (45%), and lack of supervisory regulations on pharmacy practice (15.8%). Conclusion: In this study, lack of public knowledge and awareness about appropriate use of medicines was the most important element from pharmacists’ viewpoint in occurrence of irrational drug use. Dissemination of information and compiling of diverse strategies in education, management, regulation, and finance can be very efficient due to a strong relationship between drug policies and performance of regulations and supervisions as well as drug services.
    Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research 04/2013; 2(2):59-63. DOI:10.4103/2279-042X.117385
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    • "Several important aspects of medicine use such as prescribing of medicine based on Essential Medicine List/ formularies, implementation of clinical guideline, policy making and health insurance had not been studied enough. Despite the fact that the use of antibiotics has been increased over time in Iran 11 , but based on our search intervention to improve or rationalize them was not sufficient. "
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    ABSTRACT: Inappropriate use of drugs is commonly observed in health care system throughout the world especially in developing countries. The consequences of irrational use of drugs are enormous for patients and communities. Proper interventions would have important financial and public health benefits. Several studies have been performed about rational use of drugs in Iran. The objective of this study was to assess scientific output on rational use of drugs in Iran using a bibliometric analysis of publications. A systematic search was conducted for finding all papers (English and Persian) using Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Proquest, International Pharmaceutical Abstract and Persian databases including SID, Iran Medex and MagIran. Retrieved articles were categorized by research topics and year of publication. Impact Factor of the journals, citation analysis of first authors, most cited topics and average citations per item were analyzed. A total of 668 articles were retrieved from all search engines after excluding irrelevant, 466 articles were included in the review. Number of publications increased dramatically after 2001(more than 10 times). Evaluation of prescribing pattern (15%), self-medication (11.3%) and adverse drug reaction (9.1%) were among the most studied topics. From the total of 165 journals, 60 of them had Impact factors and 125 articles were published in these journals. Antimicrobial resistance and adverse drug reaction were the most cited topic. Publication of articles on rational use of drugs research in Iran has undergone an important increase during last decade. Further analysis of research outputs is necessary to achieve rational use of medicines goal.
    03/2013; 11(1):38-43. DOI:10.4321/S1886-36552013000100007
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