Predictive factors for malignant pheochromocytoma: analysis of 136 patients.
ABSTRACT We evaluated the clinical characteristic, tumor feature and immunohistochemistry factors predicting malignant pheochromocytoma.
Between January 1999 and December 2008 we retrospectively reviewed the records of 136 patients with pheochromocytoma at Ruijin Hospital. We compared clinical characteristics (age, gender, symptoms and biochemical analysis), tumor features (site, weight and diameter) and the expression of 3 angiogenesis/metastasis related genes (VEGF, Cox-2 and MVD) by immunohistochemical analysis of benign vs malignant pheochromocytomas.
Of the 136 patients 105 (77%) had benign and 31 (23%) had malignant pheochromocytoma. Malignant tumors were larger and heavier than benign tumors, and accompanied by higher plasma metanephrine secretion (each p <0.001). Mean tumor catecholamine and preoperative 24-hour urinary metanephrine or normetanephrine were obviously higher in malignant than in benign tumors (p <0.001). Also, 25 malignant tumors (81%) were immunopositive for VEGF while only 24 benign tumors (23%) showed this characteristic (p <0.001). Microvessel density and the rate of positive staining for Cox-2 protein in malignant samples were higher than in benign samples (p <0.001).
Several promising predictive parameters are currently available to distinguish benign from malignant pheochromocytoma. Large (5 cm or greater) or heavy (250 gm or greater) tumors, multifocal and extra-adrenal tumors, early onset postoperative hypertension and higher plasma or urine metadrenaline are high risk factors predictive of malignant pheochromocytoma. Also, expression of the 3 angiogenesis or metastasis related genes VEGF, Cox-2 and MVD helps determine the diagnosis of malignancy and suggests strict followup.
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ABSTRACT: Quantitative gait analysis has been used to elucidate characteristic features of neurological gait disturbances. Although a number of studies compared single patient groups with controls, there are only a few studies comparing gait parameters between patients with different neurological disorders affecting gait. In the present study, gait parameters were compared between control subjects, patients with parkinsonian gait due to idiopathic Parkinson's disease, subjects suffering from cerebellar ataxia and patients with gait disturbance due to subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy. In addition to recording of baseline parameters during preferred walking velocity, subjects were required to vary velocity from very slow to very fast. Values of velocity and stride length from each subject were then used for linear regression analysis. Whereas all patient groups showed slower walking velocity and reduced step length compared with healthy controls when assessed during preferred walking, patients with ataxia and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy had, in addition, increased variability of amplitude and timing of steps. Regression analysis showed that with changing velocity, subjects with Parkinson's disease changed their stride length in the same proportion as that measured in controls. In contrast, patients with ataxia and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy had a disproportionate contribution of stride length when velocity was increased. Whereas the findings in patients with Parkinson's disease can be explained as a reduction of force gain, the observations for patients with ataxia and subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy reflect an altered spatiotemporal gait strategy in order to compensate for instability. The similarity of gait disturbance in subcortical arteriosclerotic encephalopathy and cerebellar ataxia suggests common mechanisms.Brain 08/1999; 122 ( Pt 7):1349-55. · 9.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The movement-related cortical electroencephalographic potential was recorded from scalp electrodes in 8 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease studied at least 12 hours after withdrawal of their normal drug therapy, and compared with the results from a group of 8 age-matched control subjects. Two types of self-paced voluntary arm movements were examined: repetitive forward movement of a joystick, and random-choice movements of the same joystick in which subjects had to choose freely the direction in which they were to move the stick (forward, backward, left, or right). In normal subjects, the movement-related cortical potential was larger prior to random-choice movements, whereas in the patients, the amplitude was the same in both tasks. The implication is that processes involved in self-selection of movement are abnormal in Parkinson's disease. This may contribute to the difficulty that patients have in initiating voluntary movement in the absence of any external cues.Annals of Neurology 07/1995; 37(6):791-9. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study planning of movement in Parkinson's disease. The spatiotemporal pattern of movement related desynchronisation (MRD) preceding a self paced voluntary wrist flexion was compared between two groups of 10 untreated right and left hemiparkinsonian patients receiving no treatment and 10 control subjects. The MRD was computed in the 9 to 11 Hz frequency band from 11 source derivations covering the frontocentral, central, and parietocentral areas, during two successive left and right experimental conditions. In the two patient groups the desynchronisation appeared over the primary sensorimotor area contralateral to the affected side with a shorter latency (750 ms before movement onset for the right hemiparkinsonian group and 875 ms for the left hemiparkinsonian group) than in the control group (1750 ms), only when the movements were performed with the akinetic hand. For the non-affected hand, the same latency as in the control group was noted (1750 ms). The delay of appearance of MRD in Parkinson's disease confirmed that the programming of movement is affected, thus partially explaining akinesia.Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 04/1996; 60(3):307-12. · 4.92 Impact Factor