The Relationship Between Prostate Specific Antigen Change and Biopsy Progression in Patients on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
ABSTRACT We assessed whether an association exists between a change in prostate specific antigen and biopsy progression in men on active surveillance.
A cohort of patients undergoing active surveillance for prostate cancer was identified from the urological oncology database at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether prostate specific antigen velocity, defined as the change in ln(prostate specific antigen) per year, is associated with biopsy progression, defined as a Gleason upgrade or volume progression on repeat biopsy within 24 months of diagnosis.
A total of 241 men with a mean ± SD age of 61 ± 7 years and mean prostate specific antigen 4.9 ± 2.2 ng/ml met study inclusion criteria. Median time to repeat biopsy was 10 months (IQR 6-13). Biopsy progression developed in 55 men (23%), including a Gleason score upgrade in 46 (19%), greater than 33% positive cores in 11 (5%) and greater than 50% maximum single core positive in 12 (5%). The median prostate specific antigen ratio per year was 1.0 (IQR 0.95-1.03), although 1 man had a ratio of greater than 1.26 (doubled over 3 years) and 7 had a ratio of less than 1/1.26 (halved over 3 years). On multivariate analysis prostate specific antigen doubling within 3 years was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the odds of biopsy progression (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.4, p = 0.46).
There is little change in prostate specific antigen during the first 24 months of surveillance in men with well staged, low risk prostate cancer. We believe that these findings highlight the importance of repeat biopsy during surveillance.
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ABSTRACT: to investigate the correlation between the parameters of prostate cancer (PCa) at contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with PCa risk. 84 patients (68 ± 8 years; range, 33-79 years) who had undergone CEUS were included. All the images were offline analyzed. Parameters (maximum intensity (IMAX), rise time (RT), time to peak (TTP) and mean transit time (mTT)) were recorded and compared with PSA level, Gleason score, clinical stages and PCa risk. Age was correlated significantly with PCa risk. RT and mTT of outer gland were associated with PCa risk. No significant correlation was found between PSA and CEUS enhancement parameters. Furthermore, with the exception of IMAX of inner gland and IMAX of outer gland, there were no significant differences of enhancement parameters in Gleason score groups and clinical stages groups. The enhancement parameters of PCa at CEUS may be used to predict PCa risk. And it is helpful for the choice of therapeutic options.International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 01/2015; 8(2):2562-9. · 1.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Active surveillance (AS) is an important strategy to reduce prostate cancer overtreatment. However, the optimal criteria for eligibility and predictors of progression while on AS are debated. To review primary data on markers, genetic factors, and risk stratification for patient selection and predictors of progression during AS. Electronic searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from inception to April 2014 for original articles on biomarkers and risk stratification for AS. Patient factors associated with AS outcomes in some studies include age, race, and family history. Multiple studies provide consistent evidence that a lower percentage of free prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a higher Prostate Health Index (PHI), a higher PSA density (PSAD), and greater biopsy core involvement at baseline predict a greater risk of progression. During follow-up, serial measurements of PHI and PSAD, as well as repeat biopsy results, predict later biopsy progression. While some studies have suggested a univariate relationship between urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) and transmembrane protease, serine 2-v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog gene fusion (TMPRSS2:ERG) with adverse biopsy features, these markers have not been consistently shown to independently predict AS outcomes. No conclusive data support the use of genetic tests in AS. Limitations of these studies include heterogeneous definitions of progression and limited follow-up. There is a growing body of literature on patient characteristics, biopsy features, and biomarkers with potential utility in AS. More data are needed on practical applications such as combining these tests into multivariable clinical algorithms and long-term outcomes to further improve AS in the future. Several PSA-based tests (free PSA, PHI, PSAD) and the extent of cancer on biopsy can help to stratify the risk of progression during active surveillance. Investigation of several other markers is under way. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.European Urology 10/2014; 67(4). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.10.010 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To define clinical and pathological factors predicting reclassification at the time of 1-year repeat biopsy (re-Bx) based on a Japanese cohort forming part of the Prostate Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study. The inclusion criteria for the PRIAS study are as follows: clinical stage T1c/T2, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, PSA density (PSAD) < 0.2 ng/ml per milliliter, one or two positive biopsy cores, and Gleason score (GS) ≤ 6 at initial diagnostic biopsy. Baseline clinical characteristics and prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) at the time of re-Bx were analyzed via multivariate logistic regression with respect to reclassification and 'no cancer' status on the 1-year re-Bx. A total of 386 patients were enrolled in PRIAS-JAPAN by the end of 2013. Of these, 216 underwent re-Bx at 1 year. A total of 73 patients (33.8 %) were reclassified, whereas 74 (34.3 %) had no cancer. Older age, a higher PSAD, a higher positive core rate, and a shorter PSADT were significant predictors of reclassification. The positive core rate was the predictor common to reclassification, no cancer, and high GS, upon re-Bx. An interim analysis of a Japanese AS cohort participating in PRIAS revealed that the positive core rate was strongly associated with reclassification at the 1-year re-Bx. However, although amendment of the PRIAS inclusion criteria to incorporate a positive core might reduce any concern about underestimation, this would also reduce the number of patients undergoing AS.World Journal of Urology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00345-014-1453-8 · 3.42 Impact Factor