The Relationship Between Prostate Specific Antigen Change and Biopsy Progression in Patients on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer
ABSTRACT We assessed whether an association exists between a change in prostate specific antigen and biopsy progression in men on active surveillance.
A cohort of patients undergoing active surveillance for prostate cancer was identified from the urological oncology database at our institution. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine whether prostate specific antigen velocity, defined as the change in ln(prostate specific antigen) per year, is associated with biopsy progression, defined as a Gleason upgrade or volume progression on repeat biopsy within 24 months of diagnosis.
A total of 241 men with a mean ± SD age of 61 ± 7 years and mean prostate specific antigen 4.9 ± 2.2 ng/ml met study inclusion criteria. Median time to repeat biopsy was 10 months (IQR 6-13). Biopsy progression developed in 55 men (23%), including a Gleason score upgrade in 46 (19%), greater than 33% positive cores in 11 (5%) and greater than 50% maximum single core positive in 12 (5%). The median prostate specific antigen ratio per year was 1.0 (IQR 0.95-1.03), although 1 man had a ratio of greater than 1.26 (doubled over 3 years) and 7 had a ratio of less than 1/1.26 (halved over 3 years). On multivariate analysis prostate specific antigen doubling within 3 years was associated with a 1.4-fold increase in the odds of biopsy progression (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.4, p = 0.46).
There is little change in prostate specific antigen during the first 24 months of surveillance in men with well staged, low risk prostate cancer. We believe that these findings highlight the importance of repeat biopsy during surveillance.
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ABSTRACT: To define clinical and pathological factors predicting reclassification at the time of 1-year repeat biopsy (re-Bx) based on a Japanese cohort forming part of the Prostate Research International: Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study. The inclusion criteria for the PRIAS study are as follows: clinical stage T1c/T2, PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml, PSA density (PSAD) < 0.2 ng/ml per milliliter, one or two positive biopsy cores, and Gleason score (GS) ≤ 6 at initial diagnostic biopsy. Baseline clinical characteristics and prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) at the time of re-Bx were analyzed via multivariate logistic regression with respect to reclassification and 'no cancer' status on the 1-year re-Bx. A total of 386 patients were enrolled in PRIAS-JAPAN by the end of 2013. Of these, 216 underwent re-Bx at 1 year. A total of 73 patients (33.8 %) were reclassified, whereas 74 (34.3 %) had no cancer. Older age, a higher PSAD, a higher positive core rate, and a shorter PSADT were significant predictors of reclassification. The positive core rate was the predictor common to reclassification, no cancer, and high GS, upon re-Bx. An interim analysis of a Japanese AS cohort participating in PRIAS revealed that the positive core rate was strongly associated with reclassification at the 1-year re-Bx. However, although amendment of the PRIAS inclusion criteria to incorporate a positive core might reduce any concern about underestimation, this would also reduce the number of patients undergoing AS.World Journal of Urology 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00345-014-1453-8 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction We analyzed whether expansion of existing active surveillance (AS) protocols to include men with biopsy Gleason score (GS) 3+4 prostate cancer (PCa) would significantly alter pathologic and biochemical outcomes of potential candidates of AS. Methods Among patients who underwent radical prostatectomy at our center between 2006 and 2013, we identified 577 patients (group A) who preoperatively fulfilled at least one of 6 different AS criteria. Also, we identified 217 patients (group B) with biopsy GS 3+4 but fulfilled non-GS criteria from at least one of 6 AS criteria. Designating group C as expanded group incorporating all patients in group A and B, we compared risk of unfavorable disease (pathologic GS ≥4+3 and/or pathologic T stage ≥pT3a) and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival between groups. Results Rates of unfavorable disease were not significantly different between patients of group A and C who met AS criteria from 5 institutions (all p>0.05), not including University of Toronto (p<0.001). Also BCR-free survivals were not significantly different between patients in group A and C meeting each of 6 AS criteria (all p>0.05). Among group B, PSAD>0.15 ng/mL/cm3 (p = 0.011) and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core>4 mm (p = 0.007) were significant predictors of unfavorable disease. When these two criteria were newly applied in defining group B, rates of unfavorable disease in group A and B was 15.6% and 14.7%, respectively (p = 0.886). Conclusion Overall rate of pathologically aggressive PCa harbored by potential candidates for AS may not be increased significantly with expansion of criteria to biopsy GS 3+4 under most contemporary AS protocols. PSAD and tumor length of biopsy GS 3+4 core may be useful predictors of more aggressive disease among potential candidates for AS with biopsy GS 3+4.PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e109031. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0109031 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to review the current recommendations for active surveillance in prostate cancer from the present prospective studies. Worldwide, there are increasing numbers of men with prostate cancer. It is now accepted as standard care that a number of men with favorable-risk disease can be followed with active surveillance. In 1995, the first prospective studies were initiated to assess the feasibility of active surveillance, in which the decision to intervene was determined by prostate-specific antigen and/or histological progression. The strategy was to provide therapy individualized to the biological behavior of the cancer. Clinical trials assessing active surveillance have usually included patients younger than 70 years of age, although the guidelines have changed over time for Gleason score and prostate-specific antigen, eg, doubling time, thereby changing the indication for active treatment. The present review focuses on patient selection, prospective studies reported in the literature, and future directions.01/2014; 6:107-12. DOI:10.2147/RRU.S41653