The craniocervical junction following successful haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for mucopolysaccharidosis type I H (Hurler syndrome).
ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidosis I Hurler (MPS IH) is a progressive multisystemic disorder caused by alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency. First choice of treatment in MPS IH children is haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The effect of HSCT has been shown to have limited influence on skeletal manifestations by poor penetration of musculoskeletal tissues by the enzyme derived from donor leucocytes. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of HSCT on the craniocervical junction (CCJ) in Hurler patients. We analysed retrospectively sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 30 patients with Hurler disease treated by HSCT since 1982 at the Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, UK, in order to determine whether the patients suffer from dens hypoplasia. Results were compared with biochemical and clinical characteristics: Enzyme activity (EA), chimerism, urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) excretion and neurological status. Investigations were part of standard clinical procedures. Results are descriptive in presentation. In 26/30 patients a determination of odontoid hypoplasia was feasible. The majority showed a normal dens length and an increase with age. Only 3/26 revealed a dens hypoplasia. One of them had only partial donor engraftment (DE) with reduced EA, one of them suffered from chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD). One patient with only partial DE and reduced EA presented with initial dens hypoplasia until preadolescence but normalized later on. There may be a trend towards lower EA and the occurrence of DH in transplanted MPS patients - perhaps the dosage of enzyme plays a role in the correction of skeletal complications in this patient group. HSCT patients with incomplete DE and therefore lower EAs may require special attention and care.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. Thoracolumbar kyphosis is an early characteristic feature of the disease. Ossification failure in the anterosuperior quadrant of the vertebral body results in anterior dislocation. This study describes the surgical management of thoracolumbar kyphosis in MPS IH (Hurler syndrome) in a national reference center. Among 72 MPS I patients followed in our institution, we treated surgically 14 MPS IH patients with severe thoracolumbar kyphosis. The decision was made after documented deformity progression. Mean age at surgery was 8 (3.5-15) years. Sagittal imbalance of the trunk was constant. One patient underwent extended fusion for associated scoliosis. We retrospectively reviewed 13 patients who underwent selective circumferential fusion at the thoracolumbar level. Average preoperative kyphosis was +57.5°(+30°; +90°). Surgical correction of the kyphosis was about 66 % and maintained at final follow-up. Fusion was obtained in all patients. Two patients required revision surgery consecutively to a previous posterior-only fusion, as a significant loss of correction occurred. One patient presented delayed neurologic deficit secondarily to cardiac embolism. One patient died postoperatively from cardiorespiratory failure. Surgery is necessary when kyphosis is progressive despite orthopedic management, aggravating the multifactorial trunk imbalance. Regarding our experience, circumferential arthrodesis should be recommended to achieve stable correction. Surgical management requires a multidisciplinary approach due to multisystemic failure and neurological risks specific to metabolic disorders.Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 06/2013; · 4.07 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hurler syndrome (MPS-IH) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. Besides a variety of other features, Hurler syndrome is characterized by a range of skeletal abnormalities known as dysostosis multiplex. Despite the successful effect of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation on the other features, dysostosis remains a disabling symptom of the disease. This study analyzed the status and development of the orthopaedic manifestations of 14 Dutch Hurler patients after stem cell transplantation.Data were obtained retrospectively by reviewing patients' charts, radiographs and MRIs. Existing methods to measure the deficiencies were modified to optimally address the dysostosis. These measurements were done by two of the authors independently. The odontoïd/body ratio, kyphotic angle, scoliotic angle and parameters for hip dysplasia and genu valgum were measured and plotted against age. The degree of progression was determined. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to determine the reliability of the measurements.All patients showed hypoplasia of the odontoïd, which significantly improved during growth. Kyphosis in the thoracolumbar area was present in 13 patients and proved to be progressive. Scoliosis was observed in eight patients. Hip dysplasia was present in all patients and showed no tendency of improvement. In all but one patient, knee valgus remained more than two standard deviations above normal.Dysostosis remains a major problem after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Hurler patients. Moreover, except for dens hypoplasia, it appears to be progressive and therefore surgical interventions may be necessary in the majority of these patients.JIMD reports. 01/2013; 9:17-29.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient α-L-iduronidase activity leading to accumulation of poorly degraded dermatan and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS I is associated with significant cervical spine disease, including vertebral dysplasia, odontoid hypoplasia, and accelerated disc degeneration, leading to spinal cord compression and kypho-scoliosis. The objective of this study was to establish the nature and rate of progression of cervical vertebral bone disease in MPS I using a canine model. METHODS: C2 vertebrae were obtained post-mortem from normal and MPS I dogs at 3, 6 and 12months-of-age. Morphometric parameters and mineral density for the vertebral trabecular bone and odontoid process were determined using micro-computed tomography. Vertebrae were then processed for paraffin histology, and cartilage area in both the vertebral epiphyses and odontoid process were quantified. RESULTS: Vertebral bodies of MPS I dogs had lower trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) than normals at all ages. For MPS I dogs, BV/TV, Tb.Th and BMD plateaued after 6months-of-age. The odontoid process appeared morphologically abnormal for MPS I dogs at 6 and 12months-of-age, although BV/TV and TMD were not significantly different from normals. MPS I dogs had significantly more cartilage in the vertebral epiphyses at both 3 and 6months-of-age. At 12months-of-age, epiphyseal growth plates in normal dogs were absent, but in MPS I dogs they persisted. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we report reduced trabecular bone content and mineralization, and delayed cartilage to bone conversion in MPS I dogs from 3months-of-age, which may increase vertebral fracture risk and contribute to progressive deformity. The abnormalities of the odontoid process we describe likely contribute to increased incidence of atlanto-axial subluxation observed clinically. Therapeutic strategies that enhance bone formation may decrease incidence of spine disease in MPS I patients.Bone 04/2013; · 3.82 Impact Factor