Platelet and monocyte activity markers and mediators of inflammation in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
ABSTRACT Patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) often present with symptoms similar to those of myocardial infarction (MI). We analyzed blood concentrations of mediators of inflammation and platelet- and monocyte-activity markers in patients with TC and MI for significant differences. Clinical data of patients with TC (n = 16) and acute MI (n = 16) were obtained. Serial blood samples were taken at the time of hospital admission (t(0)), after 2-4 days (t(1)) and after 4-7 weeks (t(2)), respectively. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-7, soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) were determined with an ELISA. Tissue factor binding on monocytes, platelet-activation marker CD62P, platelet CD40-ligand (CD40L), and platelet-monocyte aggregates were measured using flow cytometry. Expression of CD62P on platelets and IL-6 plasma levels were significantly lower in patients with TC compared to MI at the time of hospital admission. IL-7 plasma levels were significantly elevated in patients with TC compared to patients with MI at 2-4 days after hospital admission. No significant differences were observed concerning sCD40L and MCP-1 plasma levels, tissue factor binding on monocytes, CD40L expression on platelets, and platelet-monocyte aggregates at any point in time. Our results indicate that inflammatory mediators and platelet-activity markers contribute to the differences in the pathogenesis of MI and TC.
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ABSTRACT: CD40L-CD40 interactions induce inflammatory signals in cells of the vascular wall. We evaluated the effects of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa (alpha(IIb)beta3) engagement that occurs during platelet-endothelium interactions on CD40L surface exposure on platelets and initiation of proteolytic activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transient (60-minute) adhesion of thrombin-prestimulated platelets enhanced HUVEC expression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry) and secretion of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, tissue-type plasminogen activator, and MMP-1 (ELISA) and induced proteolytic activity via MMP-2 and MMP-9 (gelatin zymography). These effects were abrogated by hindrance of physical platelet-endothelial contacts using transwell systems or inhibited by GRGDSP, mAbs anti-GP IIb/IIIa (7E3), anti-alpha(v)beta3 (LM609), or anti-CD40L (TRAP1). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9 were inhibited by specific GP IIb/IIIa antagonists tirofiban, lamifiban, or integrelin. On endothelial cells, induction of proteolytic activity by activated platelets was mimicked by CD40 engagement using soluble CD40L but not affected by antibody clustering of alpha(v)beta3. On platelets, CD40L and CD62P exposure was enhanced on adhesion to HUVECs or immobilized fibrinogen and was abrogated by GRGDSP or LM609. In suspension, cross-linking of GP IIb/IIIa by fibrinogen plus secondary mAb upregulated CD40L surface exposure. Consistently, bivalent mAb 7E3 upregulated CD40L, whereas ligation of GP IIb/IIIa by soluble fibrinogen alone or monovalent Fab-fragment c7E3 had no effect. Platelet adhesion via GP IIb/IIIa upregulates CD40L and CD62P surface exposure. Proteolytic activity of HUVEC is induced by the concerted action of beta3-integrin-mediated platelet adhesion and subsequent CD40L-induced signals in HUVECs. Effective anti-GP IIb/IIIa or anti-CD40L strategies might, therefore, contribute to plaque stabilization.Circulation 11/2002; 106(16):2111-7. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A growing body of evidence suggests a role for inflammation in acute coronary syndromes. The aim of this study was to assess the role of proinflammatory cytokines, their time course, and their association with prognosis in unstable angina. We studied 43 patients aged 62+/-8 years admitted to our coronary care unit for Braunwald class IIIB unstable angina. In each patient, serum levels of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), interleukin-6 (IL-6) (which represent sensitive markers of biologically active IL-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels, respectively), and troponin T were measured at entry and 48 hours after admission. Troponin T-positive patients were excluded. Patients were divided a posteriori into 2 groups according to their in-hospital outcome: group 1 comprised 17 patients with an uneventful course, and group 2 comprised 26 patients with a complicated in-hospital course. In group 1, mean IL-1Ra decreased at 48 hours by 12%, and IL-6 diminished at 48 hours by 13%. In group 2, IL-1Ra and IL-6 entry levels were higher than in group 1 and increased respectively by 37% and 57% at 48 hours (P<0.01). These findings indicate that although they receive the same medical therapy as patients who do not experience an in-hospital event, patients with unstable angina and with complicated in-hospital courses have higher cytokine levels on admission. A fall in IL-1Ra and IL-6 48 hours after admission was associated with an uneventful course and their increase with a complicated hospital course. These findings may suggest novel therapeutic approaches to patients with unstable angina.Circulation 05/1999; 99(16):2079-84. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We tested the hypothesis that an increase in spontaneous aggregability of platelets in vitro predicts mortality and coronary events in patients who have survived a recent myocardial infarction. A cohort of 149 survivors of infarction entered our study three months after the index infarction and was followed for five years. At entry and at intervals of six months, spontaneous platelet aggregation (SPA) was tested and graded as positive (aggregation within 10 minutes), intermediate (aggregation after 10 to 20 minutes), or negative (no aggregation within 20 minutes). During follow-up, 6.4 percent (6 of 94) of the patients in the SPA-negative group died, as compared with 10.3 percent (3 of 29) in the SPA-intermediate group and 34.6 percent (9 of 26) in the SPA-positive group. As compared with the SPA-negative group, the SPA-intermediate group had a relative risk of death of 1.6 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.5 to 5.5) and the SPA-positive group had a risk of 5.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 13.4). At least one cardiac event (cardiac death or recurrent nonfatal myocardial infarction) occurred in 14.9 percent (14 of 94 patients) of the SPA-negative group, 24.1 percent (7 of 29) of the SPA-intermediate group, and 46.2 percent (12 of 26) of the SPA-positive group. A positive test result continued to have prognostic value throughout the five-year study. We conclude that spontaneous platelet aggregation in vitro is a useful biologic marker for the prediction of coronary events and mortality in this low-risk group of survivors of a myocardial infarction. A causal relation is suggested but not proved by our study.New England Journal of Medicine 06/1990; 322(22):1549-54. · 51.66 Impact Factor