Copper-O2 reactivity of tyrosinase models towards external monophenolic substrates: molecular mechanism and comparison with the enzyme.
ABSTRACT The critical review describes the known dicopper systems mediating the aromatic hydroxylation of monophenolic substrates. Such systems are of interest as structural and functional models of the type 3 copper enzyme tyrosinase, which catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of tyrosine to DOPA and the subsequent two-electron oxidation to dopaquinone. Small-molecule systems involving μ-η²:η² peroxo, bis-μ-oxo and trans-μ-1,2 peroxo dicopper cores are considered separately. These tyrosinase models are contrasted to copper-dioxygen systems inducing radical reactions, and the different mechanistic pathways are discussed. In addition to considering the stoichiometric conversion of phenolic substrates, the available catalytic systems are described. The second part of the review deals with tyrosinase. After an introduction on the occurrence and function of tyrosinases, several aspects of the chemical reactivity of this class of enzymes are described. The analogies between the small-molecule and the enzymatic system are considered, and the implications for the reaction pathway of tyrosinase are discussed (140 references).
Article: Crystallization and preliminary analysis of crystals of the 24-meric hemocyanin of the emperor scorpion (Pandinus imperator).[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hemocyanins are giant oxygen transport proteins found in the hemolymph of several invertebrate phyla. They constitute giant multimeric molecules whose size range up to that of cell organelles such as ribosomes or even small viruses. Oxygen is reversibly bound by hemocyanins at binuclear copper centers. Subunit interactions within the multisubunit hemocyanin complex lead to diverse allosteric effects such as the highest cooperativity for oxygen binding found in nature. Crystal structures of a native hemocyanin oligomer larger than a hexameric substructure have not been published until now. We report for the first time growth and preliminary analysis of crystals of the 24-meric hemocyanin (M(W) = 1.8 MDa) of emperor scorpion (Pandinus imperator), which diffract to a resolution of 6.5 Å. The crystals are monoclinc with space group C 1 2 1 and cell dimensions a = 311.61 Å, b = 246.58 Å and c = 251.10 Å (α = 90.00°, β = 90.02°, γ = 90.00°). The asymmetric unit contains one molecule of the 24-meric hemocyanin and the solvent content of the crystals is 56%. A preliminary analysis of the hemocyanin structure reveals that emperor scorpion hemocyanin crystallizes in the same oxygenated conformation, which is also present in solution as previously shown by cryo-EM reconstruction and small angle x-ray scattering experiments.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e32548. · 4.09 Impact Factor