Copper-O2 reactivity of tyrosinase models towards external monophenolic substrates: molecular mechanism and comparison with the enzyme.

Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Max-Eyth-Straße 2, 24118 Kiel, Germany.
Chemical Society Reviews (Impact Factor: 24.89). 03/2011; 40(7):4077-98. DOI: 10.1039/c0cs00202j
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The critical review describes the known dicopper systems mediating the aromatic hydroxylation of monophenolic substrates. Such systems are of interest as structural and functional models of the type 3 copper enzyme tyrosinase, which catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of tyrosine to DOPA and the subsequent two-electron oxidation to dopaquinone. Small-molecule systems involving μ-η²:η² peroxo, bis-μ-oxo and trans-μ-1,2 peroxo dicopper cores are considered separately. These tyrosinase models are contrasted to copper-dioxygen systems inducing radical reactions, and the different mechanistic pathways are discussed. In addition to considering the stoichiometric conversion of phenolic substrates, the available catalytic systems are described. The second part of the review deals with tyrosinase. After an introduction on the occurrence and function of tyrosinases, several aspects of the chemical reactivity of this class of enzymes are described. The analogies between the small-molecule and the enzymatic system are considered, and the implications for the reaction pathway of tyrosinase are discussed (140 references).

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The importance of aromatic CO, CN, and CS bonds necessitates increasingly efficient strategies for their formation. Herein, we report a biomimetic approach that converts phenolic CH bonds into CO, CN, and CS bonds at the sole expense of reducing dioxygen (O2) to water (H2O). Our method hinges on a regio- and chemoselective copper-catalyzed aerobic oxygenation to provide ortho-quinones. ortho-Quinones are versatile intermediates, whose direct catalytic aerobic synthesis from phenols enables a mild and efficient means of synthesizing polyfunctional aromatic rings.
    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 04/2014; · 11.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme found in plants and bacteria, as well as in humans, where it is involved in the biosynthesis of melanin-type pigments. Tyrosinase inhibitors have attracted remarkable research interest as whitening agents in cosmetology, antibrowning agents in food chemistry, and as therapeutics. In this context, commercially available tyrosinase from mushroom (TyM) is frequently used for the identification of inhibitors. This and bacterial tyrosinase (TyB) have been the subjects of intense biochemical and structural studies, including X-ray diffraction analysis, and this has led to the identification of structural homology and divergence among enzymes from different sources. To better understand the behavior of potential inhibitors of TyM and TyB, we selected the aurone family—previously identified as potential inhibitors of melanin biosynthesis in human melanocytes. In this study, a series of 24 aurones with different hydroxylation patterns at the A- and B-rings were evaluated on TyM and TyB. The results show that, depending on the hydroxylation pattern of A- and B-rings, aurones can behave as inhibitors, substrates, and activators of both enzymes. Computational analysis was performed to identify residues surrounding the aurones in the active sites of both enzymes and to rationalize the interactions. Our results highlight similarities and divergence in the behavior of TyM and TyB toward the same set of molecules.
    ChemBioChem 05/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cuscuta chinensis seeds have traditionally been used to treat freckles and melasma in Asia, although recent reports have revealed that Semen cuscutae is a promoter of melanogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the mechanism of this opposite effect of Semen cuscutae on melanogenesis. In accordance with traditional usage, the water fraction and the ethanol fraction from Semen cuscutae (WFSC/EFSC) were extracted to determine the herbal effects by examining The activity of mushroom tyrosinase, cellular melanin contents, tyrosinase activity assay, quantitative-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot analysis for tyrosinase in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. The melanocyte phenotypes of zebrafish larvae were observed while the in vivo melanin contents and tyrosinase activity were determined. The activity of mushroom tyrosinase assay shown that WFSC was an uncompetitive inhibitor of mushroom tyrosinase, while EFSC indicated dose-dependent activation of the mushroom tyrosinase activity. The WFSC markedly inhibited 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX)-stimulated melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity in vitro. However, the EFSC had an accelerant role in melanin synthesis and tyosinase activity. Neither fraction had any effect on the IBMX-induced expression of tyrosinase protein or mRNA. The WFSC strongly inhibited melanin synthesis and cellular tyrosinase activity in vivo. Furthermore, with the function of WFSC at a higher concentration, a punctate melanocyte pattern appeared that was similar to the pattern induced by arbutin or mequinol (MQ). The EFSC had no effect on the melanocytes of zebrafish larvae. It was discovered that WFSC did not show a stable inhibitory effect until it was extracted 1 month later. These results suggest that the opposite effects of Cuscuta chinensis seeds were caused by the extraction methods and that time has an important role in the effect of WFSC. Both WFSC and EFSC significant influence melanogenesis by regulating enzymatic activity of tyrosinase. In addition, the data indicate that wildtype (WT) zebrafish may be an ideal model for testing inhibitors of melanogenesis from clinically active herbs.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 04/2014; · 2.32 Impact Factor