ChemInform Abstract: Copper-O2 Reactivity of Tyrosinase Models Towards External Monophenolic Substrates: Molecular Mechanism and Comparison with the Enzyme
ABSTRACT The critical review describes the known dicopper systems mediating the aromatic hydroxylation of monophenolic substrates. Such systems are of interest as structural and functional models of the type 3 copper enzyme tyrosinase, which catalyzes the ortho-hydroxylation of tyrosine to DOPA and the subsequent two-electron oxidation to dopaquinone. Small-molecule systems involving μ-η²:η² peroxo, bis-μ-oxo and trans-μ-1,2 peroxo dicopper cores are considered separately. These tyrosinase models are contrasted to copper-dioxygen systems inducing radical reactions, and the different mechanistic pathways are discussed. In addition to considering the stoichiometric conversion of phenolic substrates, the available catalytic systems are described. The second part of the review deals with tyrosinase. After an introduction on the occurrence and function of tyrosinases, several aspects of the chemical reactivity of this class of enzymes are described. The analogies between the small-molecule and the enzymatic system are considered, and the implications for the reaction pathway of tyrosinase are discussed (140 references).
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ABSTRACT: Substantial evidence gathered recently has revealed the multiple functionalities of hemocyanin. Contrary to previous claims that this ancient protein is involved solely in oxygen transport within the hemolymph of invertebrates, hemocyanin and hemocyanin-derived peptides have been linked to key aspects of innate immunity, in particular, antiviral and phenoloxidase-like activities. Both phenoloxidase and hemocyanin belong to the family of type-3 copper proteins and share a high degree of sequence homology. While the importance of phenoloxidase in immunity and development is well characterised, the contribution of hemocyanin to biological defence systems within invertebrates is not recognised widely. This review focusses on the conversion of hemocyanin into a phenoloxidase-like enzyme and the array of hemocyanin-derived immune responses documented to date.Developmental and comparative immunology 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2014.01.021 · 3.71 Impact Factor
- Proceedings of the International Workshop on Scientific Gateways 2013 (IWSG); 01/2013
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ABSTRACT: Tyrosinase is responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables and usually catalyze the conversion of monophenols to o-diphenols and oxidation of diphenols to corresponding quinines. However, when 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid is provided as the substrate, it catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation reaction to generate 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (protocatechualdehyde, PA. In the present study, tyrosinase was purified from potato with 27.9 purification fold by salting out with ammonium sulfate, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-150 column chromatography. The purified tyrosinase was confirmed by tyrosinase active staining following SDS-PAGE. Tyrosinase activity was visualized in the gel as a dark band. The molecular weight of tyrosinase from potato was 38kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. Purified tyrosinase mediated oxidative decarboxylation of 3,4-dihydroxymandelate. The identity of the reaction product, PA was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as well as ultraviolet spectral studies. Phenol oxidase inhibitors such as potassium cyanide, sodium azide, and phenylthiourea inhibited the participation of the active site copper of the enzyme in the catalysis.Horticulture, Environment and Biotechnology 08/2012; 53(4). DOI:10.1007/s13580-012-0098-z · 0.49 Impact Factor