Themes in fibrosis and gastrointestinal inflammation
ABSTRACT Wound healing is an appropriate response to inflammation and tissue injury in the gastrointestinal tract. If wound healing responses are excessive, perpetuated, or prolonged, they lead to fibrosis, distortion of tissue architecture, and loss of function. This introductory editorial and the minireviews or reviews in this themes series highlight the diversity in severity and location of fibrosis in response to gastrointestinal inflammation. The multiplicity of cellular and molecular mediators and new players, including stem cells or extracellular matrix-producing cells derived from nonmesenchymal cell types, is reviewed. Comparisons of inflammation-induced fibrosis across organ systems and the need for integrated and systems-based molecular approaches, new imaging modalities, well-characterized animal models, cell culture models, and improved diagnostic or predictive markers are reviewed. To date, intestinal fibrosis has received much less attention than inflammation in terms of defining mechanisms and underlying causes. This themes series aims to illustrate the importance of research in this area in gastrointestinal health and disease.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Intestinal fibrosis is a common complication of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). It becomes clinically apparent in >30% of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and in about 5% with ulcerative colitis (UC). Fibrosis is a consequence of local chronic inflammation and is characterized by excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposition. ECM is produced by activated myofibroblasts, which are modulated by both, profibrotic and antifibrotic factors. Fibrosis depends on the balance between the production and degradation of ECM proteins. This equilibrium can be impacted by a complex and dynamic interaction between profibrotic and antifibrotic mediators. Despite the major therapeutic advances in the treatment of active inflammation in IBD over the past two decades, the incidence of intestinal strictures in CD has not significantly changed as the current anti-inflammatory therapies neither prevent nor reverse the established fibrosis and strictures. This implies that control of intestinal inflammation does not necessarily affect the associated fibrotic process. The conventional view that intestinal fibrosis is an inevitable and irreversible process in patients with IBD is also gradually changing in light of an improved understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underline the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Comprehension of the mechanisms of intestinal fibrosis is thus vital and may pave the way for the developments of antifibrotic agents and new therapeutic approaches in IBD.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 01/2015; 50(1):53-65. DOI:10.3109/00365521.2014.968863
- Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Advances in Pathogenesis and Management, 01/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-307-891-5
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ABSTRACT: Hepatic expression of the transcription factor early growth response-1 (Egr-1) is increased in livers of patients with cholestatic liver disease. Bile acid induction of inflammatory genes in hepatocytes is Egr-1 dependent, and Egr-1 expression is increased in livers of mice after bile duct ligation. Of importance, Egr-1 deficiency reduces liver inflammation and injury in that model. However, it is not known whether Egr-1 promotes inflammation in other models of cholestasis. We tested the hypothesis that Egr-1 contributes to liver inflammation in mice exposed chronically to the bile duct epithelial cell (BDEC) toxicant alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). Egr-1-knockout (Egr-1(-/-)) mice and wild-type mice were fed a diet containing 0.025% ANIT for 2 weeks. Expression of Egr-1 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in livers of mice fed ANIT diet. Egr-1 deficiency did not significantly affect ANIT diet-induced hepatocellular injury, inflammatory gene induction, BDEC hyperplasia, or hepatic neutrophil accumulation. In contrast, the deposition of Type 1 collagen was significantly increased in livers of Egr-1(-/-) mice fed ANIT diet compared with wild-type mice fed ANIT diet. Interestingly, this increase in liver fibrosis occurred in association with elevated expression of the β6 integrin (Itgb6) gene, suggesting the potential for increased local activation of transforming growth factor beta. Taken together, the results indicate that Egr-1 does not contribute to liver injury or inflammation in mice fed a diet containing ANIT. Rather, these studies indicate that Egr-1 deficiency worsens liver fibrosis in conjunction with enhanced expression of the profibrogenic Itgb6 gene.Toxicological Sciences 11/2011; 126(1):267-74. DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfr311