High prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea and its association with renal function among nondialysis chronic kidney disease patients in Japan: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects one of five adults in the general population. Although a high prevalence of OSA has been reported among dialysis patients, the association between nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) and OSA has not been fully investigated. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the prevalence of OSA among nondialysis CKD patients in Japan and the association between renal function and OSA.
Consecutive nondialysis CKD patients hospitalized mainly for CKD educational program, regardless of their sleep complaints, were enrolled. The diagnosis of OSA and its severity were measured using a type 3 portable monitor.
Overall (n=100, 68.0% male, median age 66.5 years, body mass index [BMI] 23.1 kg/m(2), estimated GFR [eGFR] 28.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)), 65% were diagnosed as OSA: mild OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 5.0 to 14.9) in 32%, moderate OSA (AHI 15.0 to 29.9) in 25%, and severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30.0) in 8%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a 10-ml/min per 1.73 m(2) decrease in eGFR was associated with a 42% increased odds of OSA after adjustment for age, BMI, and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, in a generalized linear model, eGFR was inversely correlated with AHI after adjustment for covariates.
This study demonstrated a high prevalence of OSA among nondialysis CKD patients in Japan and that the increased risk of OSA was significantly associated with decreased GFR among these patients. Further investigations are warranted to determine OSA's direct influence on cardiovascular disease.
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ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may contribute to morbidity and mortality in this population. However, the association between mild to moderate CKD and likelihood of SDB is uncertain. We studied 2696 men >or=65 years (mean 73.0 +/- 5.5) enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) study who had serum creatinine (SCr) measured 3.4 years prior to overnight polysomnography (PSG). CKD was expressed as quartiles of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) formula. SDB was assessed using the respiratory disturbance index (RDI) with >or=4% oxygen desaturation. Mean SCr was 0.99 +/- 0.20 mg/dl; 14.8% had eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Median RDI was 7.4 events/hour (inter-quartile range 2.6-15.8). Lower eGFR was not associated with higher mean RDI in the unadjusted model (P for trend = 0.180). There was evidence of an interaction between eGFR and age for the prediction of RDI; an association between lower eGFR and higher RDI was evident only among men <or=72 (median) years. Among this age group, however, the association was not statistically significant after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (P for trend = 0.278). In this cohort of older community-dwelling men, reduced renal function was not associated with greater evidence of SDB, except among younger old men. However, this association was largely explained by higher BMI at lower eGFR. Further prospective study in younger populations is needed to clarify our findings.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 12/2008; 23(12):3908-14. · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Altered cardiovascular variability is a prognostic indicator for cardiovascular events. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that OSA is accompanied by alterations in cardiovascular variability, even in the absence of overt cardiovascular disease. Spectral analysis of variability of muscle sympathetic nerve activity, RR interval, and blood pressure were obtained during undisturbed supine rest in 15 patients with moderate-to-severe OSA, 18 patients with mild OSA, and 16 healthy control subjects in whom sleep disordered breathing was excluded by complete overnight polysomnography. Patients with OSA were newly diagnosed, never treated for OSA, and free of any other known diseases. Patients with moderate-to-severe OSA had shorter RR intervals (793+/-27 ms) and increased sympathetic burst frequency (49+/-4 bursts/min) compared with control subjects (947+/-42 ms; 24+/-3 bursts/min; P=0.008 and P<0.001, respectively). In these patients, total variance of RR was reduced (P=0.01) and spectral analysis of RR variability showed an increase in low frequency normalized units, a decrease in high frequency normalized units, and an increase in the ratio of low to high frequency (all P<0.05). Even though blood pressure was similar to that of the control subjects, blood pressure variance in patients with moderate-to-severe OSA was more than double the variance in control subjects (P=0.01). Patients with mild OSA also had a reduction in RR variance (P=0.02) in the absence of any significant difference in absolute RR interval. For all patients with OSA, linear regression showed a positive correlation (r=0.40; P=0.02) between sleep apnea severity and blood pressure variance. Cardiovascular variability is altered in patients with OSA. This alteration is evident even in the absence of hypertension, heart failure, or other disease states and may be linked to the severity of OSA. Abnormalities in cardiovascular variability may be implicated in the subsequent development of overt cardiovascular disease in patients with OSA.Circulation 10/1998; 98(11):1071-7. · 14.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Population-based epidemiologic studies have uncovered the high prevalence and wide severity spectrum of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, and have consistently found that even mild obstructive sleep apnea is associated with significant morbidity. Evidence from methodologically strong cohort studies indicates that undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea, with or without symptoms, is independently associated with increased likelihood of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, daytime sleepiness, motor vehicle accidents, and diminished quality of life. Strategies to decrease the high prevalence and associated morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea are critically needed. The reduction or elimination of risk factors through public health initiatives with clinical support holds promise. Potentially modifiable risk factors considered in this review include overweight and obesity, alcohol, smoking, nasal congestion, and estrogen depletion in menopause. Data suggest that obstructive sleep apnea is associated with all these factors, but at present the only intervention strategy supported with adequate evidence is weight loss. A focus on weight control is especially important given the expanding epidemic of overweight and obesity in the United States. Primary care providers will be central to clinical approaches for addressing the burden and the development of cost-effective case-finding strategies and feasible treatment for mild obstructive sleep apnea warrants high priority.American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2002; 165(9):1217-39. · 11.08 Impact Factor