The use of stable-isotopically labeled oleic acid to interrogate lipid assembly in vivo: assessing pharmacological effects in preclinical species.
ABSTRACT The use of stable isotopically labeled substrates and analysis by mass spectrometry have provided substantial insight into rates of synthesis, disposition, and utilization of lipids in vivo. The information to be gained from such studies is of particular benefit to therapeutic research where the underlying causes of disease may be related to the production and utilization of lipids. When studying biology through the use of isotope tracers, care must be exercised in interpreting the data to ensure that any response observed can truly be interpreted as biological and not as an artifact of the experimental design or a dilutional effect on the isotope. We studied the effects of dosing route and tracer concentration on the mass isotopomer distribution profile as well as the action of selective inhibitors of microsomal tri-glyceride transfer protein (MTP) in mice and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) in nonhuman primates, using a stable-isotopically labeled approach. Subjects were treated with inhibitor and subsequently given a dose of uniformly ¹³C-labeled oleic acid. Samples were analyzed using a rapid LC-MS technique, allowing the effects of the intervention on the assembly and disposition of triglycerides, cholesteryl esters, and phospholipids to be determined in a single 3 min run from just 10 μl of plasma.
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ABSTRACT: We present a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method for long-chain and very-long-chain fatty acid analysis and its application to (13)C-tracer studies of fatty acid metabolism. Fatty acids containing 14 to 36 carbon atoms are separated by C(8) reversed-phase chromatography using a water-methanol gradient with tributylamine as ion pairing agent, ionized by electrospray and analyzed by a stand-alone orbitrap mass spectrometer. The median limit of detection is 5 ng/mL with a linear dynamic range of 100-fold. Ratios of unlabeled to (13)C-labeled species are quantitated precisely and accurately (average relative standard deviation 3.2% and deviation from expectation 2.3%). In samples consisting of fatty acids saponified from cultured mammalian cells, 45 species are quantified, with average intraday relative standard deviations for independent biological replicates of 11%. The method enables quantitation of molecular ion peaks for all labeled forms of each fatty acid. Different degrees of (13)C-labeling from glucose and glutamine correspond to fatty acid uptake from media, de novo synthesis, and elongation. To exemplify the utility of the method, we examined isogenic cell lines with and without activated Ras oncogene expression. Ras increases the abundance and alters the labeling patterns of saturated and monounsaturated very-long-chain fatty acids, with the observed pattern consistent with Ras leading to enhanced activity of ELOVL4 or an enzyme with similar catalytic activity. This LC/MS method and associated isotope tracer techniques should be broadly applicable to investigating fatty acid metabolism.Analytical Chemistry 12/2011; 83(23):9114-22. DOI:10.1021/ac202220b · 5.83 Impact Factor
Article: Lipidomics[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lipidomics characterizes the composition of intact lipid molecular species in biological systems and the field has been driven by some spectacular advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation and applications. This review will highlight these advances and outline their recent application to address clinical issues. This review first identifies recent advances in lipid detection and analysis by a variety of mass spectrometry techniques, then reviews specific application including stable isotope labelling of lipids, lipid mass spectrometry imaging, data analysis and bioinformatics, and finally presents examples of the application of lipidomics to selected disease states. Lipidomics so far has been principally concerned with identifying novel methodologies, but recent advances demonstrating applications in diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis and other respiratory diseases clearly indicate the potential usefulness of lipidomics both to generate biomarkers of disease and to probe signalling and metabolic processes.03/2012; 15(2):127-33. DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e32834fb003
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ABSTRACT: Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final step in triglyceride (TG) synthesis. There are two isoforms, DGAT1 and DGAT2, with distinct protein sequences and potentially different physiological functions. To date, the ability to determine clear functional differences between DGAT1 and DGAT2, especially with respect to hepatic TG synthesis, has been elusive. To dissect the roles of these two key enzymes, we pretreated HepG2 hepatoma cells with (13)C(3)-D(5)-glycerol or (13)C(18)-oleic acid, and profiled the major isotope-labeled TG species by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Selective DGAT1 and DGAT2 inhibitors demonstrated that (13)C(3)-D(5)-glycerol-incorporated TG synthesis was mediated by DGAT2, not DGAT1. Conversely, (13)C(18)-oleoyl-incorporated TG synthesis was predominantly mediated by DGAT1. To trace hepatic TG synthesis and VLDL triglyceride (VLDL-TG) secretion in vivo, we administered D(5)-glycerol to mice and measured plasma levels of D(5)-glycerol-incorporated TG. Treatment with an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to DGAT2 led to a significant reduction in D(5)-glycerol incorporation into VLDL-TG. In contrast, the DGAT2 ASO had no effect on the incorporation of exogenously administered (13)C(18)-oleic acid into VLDL-TG. Thus, our results indicate that DGAT1 and DGAT2 mediate distinct hepatic functions: DGAT2 is primarily responsible for incorporating endogenously synthesized FAs into TG, whereas DGAT1 plays a greater role in esterifying exogenous FAs to glycerol.The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2012; 53(6):1106-16. DOI:10.1194/jlr.M020156 · 4.73 Impact Factor