Sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of bumetanide in serum and brain tissue
ABSTRACT We have developed and validated a simple and sensitive stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of bumetanide in human serum. Samples were prepared with a simple acetonitrile based protein precipitation. The supernatant was then analyzed directly using LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 reversed phase column using a methanol and water gradient. The detection was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via a positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. The method had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL, linearity up to 1250 ng/mL, intra- and inter-day precision less than 10%, and accuracy within ±10%. This method was also demonstrated to be suitable for the analysis of bumetanide in rat serum and brain tissue. Bumetanide concentrations in rat serum and brain were determined for samples collected at several intervals following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of bumetanide, and were used to calculate bumetanide permeability through the blood-brain barrier.
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- "In addition to having a diuretic effect in the kidney, inhibiting NKCC1 activity with bumetanide could act in the brain to reduce the sympathetic drive (Li et al., 2011). "
ABSTRACT: Hypertension is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, and kidney failure. However, the etiology of hypertension in most patients is poorly understood. Increased sympathetic drive emanating from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) plays a major role in the development of hypertension. Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) in the brain is critically involved in maintaining chloride homeostasis and in neuronal responses mediated by GABA(A) receptors. Here we present novel evidence that the GABA reversal potential (E(GABA)) of PVN presympathetic neurons undergoes a depolarizing shift that diminishes GABA inhibition in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Inhibition of NKCC1, but not KCC2, normalizes E(GABA) and restores GABA inhibition of PVN neurons in SHRs. The mRNA and protein levels of NKCC1, but not KCC2, in the PVN are significantly increased in SHRs, and the NKCC1 proteins on the plasma membrane are highly glycosylated. Inhibiting NKCC1 N-glycosylation restores E(GABA) and GABAergic inhibition of PVN presympathetic neurons in SHRs. Furthermore, NKCC1 inhibition significantly reduces the sympathetic vasomotor tone and augments the sympathoinhibitory responses to GABA(A) receptor activation in the PVN in SHRs. These findings suggest that increased NKCC1 activity and glycosylation disrupt chloride homeostasis and impair synaptic inhibition in the PVN to augment the sympathetic drive in hypertension. This information greatly improves our understanding of the pathogenesis of hypertension and helps to design better treatment strategies for neurogenic hypertension.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 06/2012; 32(25):8560-8. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1346-12.2012 · 6.75 Impact Factor
- British dental journal 08/2006; 201(1):61. DOI:10.1038/sj.bdj.4813815 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay has been proposed for the determination of bumetanide in human plasma using tamsulosin as internal standard (IS). The analyte and IS were extracted from 200 μL of human plasma via solid phase extraction and the chromatographic separation was achieved on Peerless Basic C18 (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) column under isocratic conditions. Detection of bumetanide and IS was done by tandem mass spectrometry, operating in positive ionization and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for bumetanide and IS were m/z 365.2→240.2 and 409.2→228.2 respectively. The method was fully validated as per the US FDA guidelines. The limit of detection and lower limit of quantitation of the method were 0.03 and 0.30 ng/mL respectively with a linear dynamic range of 0.30-200.0 ng/mL for bumetanide. The intra-batch and inter-batch precision (% CV) was ≤6.9% while the mean extraction recovery was >90% across quality control levels. The method is selective in presence of four diuretic drugs and some commonly used medications by healthy volunteers. It was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of 2mg bumetanide tablet formulation in 10 healthy Indian male subjects under fasting condition. The reproducibility in the measurement of study data was demonstrated by reanalysis of 42 incurred samples.Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis 03/2012; 66:365-70. DOI:10.1016/j.jpba.2012.03.018 · 2.83 Impact Factor