Sensitive isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of bumetanide in serum and brain tissue.
ABSTRACT We have developed and validated a simple and sensitive stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of bumetanide in human serum. Samples were prepared with a simple acetonitrile based protein precipitation. The supernatant was then analyzed directly using LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 reversed phase column using a methanol and water gradient. The detection was performed in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode via a positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. The method had a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1 ng/mL, linearity up to 1250 ng/mL, intra- and inter-day precision less than 10%, and accuracy within ±10%. This method was also demonstrated to be suitable for the analysis of bumetanide in rat serum and brain tissue. Bumetanide concentrations in rat serum and brain were determined for samples collected at several intervals following intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of bumetanide, and were used to calculate bumetanide permeability through the blood-brain barrier.
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ABSTRACT: Seizures are a common manifestation of acute neurologic insults in neonates and are often resistant to the standard antiepileptic drugs that are efficacious in children and adults. The paucity of evidence-based treatment guidelines, coupled with a rudimentary understanding of disease pathogenesis, has made the current treatment of neonatal seizures empiric and often ineffective, highlighting the need for novel therapies. Key developmental differences in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurotransmission between the immature and mature brain, and trauma-induced alterations in the function of the cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) NKCC1 and KCC2, probably contribute to the poor efficacy of standard antiepileptic drugs used in the treatment of neonatal seizures. Although CCCs are attractive drug targets, bumetanide and other existing CCC inhibitors are suboptimal because of pharmacokinetic constraints and lack of target specificity. Newer approaches including isoform-specific NKCC1 inhibitors with increased central nervous system penetration, and direct and indirect strategies to enhance KCC2-mediated neuronal chloride extrusion, might allow therapeutic modulation of the GABAergic system for neonatal seizure treatment.A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.Epilepsia 05/2014; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The WNK-SPAK/OSR1 kinase complex is composed of the kinases WNK (with no lysine) and SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) or the SPAK homolog OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1). The WNK family senses changes in intracellular Cl(-) concentration, extracellular osmolarity, and cell volume and transduces this information to sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) cotransporters [collectively referred to as CCCs (cation-chloride cotransporters)] and ion channels to maintain cellular and organismal homeostasis and affect cellular morphology and behavior. Several genes encoding proteins in this pathway are mutated in human disease, and the cotransporters are targets of commonly used drugs. WNKs stimulate the kinases SPAK and OSR1, which directly phosphorylate and stimulate Cl(-)-importing, Na(+)-driven CCCs or inhibit the Cl(-)-extruding, K(+)-driven CCCs. These coordinated and reciprocal actions on the CCCs are triggered by an interaction between RFXV/I motifs within the WNKs and CCCs and a conserved carboxyl-terminal docking domain in SPAK and OSR1. This interaction site represents a potentially druggable node that could be more effective than targeting the cotransporters directly. In the kidney, WNK-SPAK/OSR1 inhibition decreases epithelial NaCl reabsorption and K(+) secretion to lower blood pressure while maintaining serum K(+). In neurons, WNK-SPAK/OSR1 inhibition could facilitate Cl(-) extrusion and promote γ-aminobutyric acidergic (GABAergic) inhibition. Such drugs could have efficacy as K(+)-sparing blood pressure-lowering agents in essential hypertension, nonaddictive analgesics in neuropathic pain, and promoters of GABAergic inhibition in diseases associated with neuronal hyperactivity, such as epilepsy, spasticity, neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and autism.Science Signaling 01/2014; 7(334):re3. · 7.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury is characterized by loss of inhibition in both peripheral and central pain pathways. In the adult nervous system, the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) (NKCC1) and neuron-specific K(+)-Cl(-) (KCC2) co-transporters are involved in setting the strength and polarity of GABAergic/Glycinergic transmission. After nerve injury, the balance between these co-transporters changes leading to a decrease in the inhibitory tone. However, the role that NKCC1 and KCC2 play in pain processing brain areas is unknown. Our goal was to study the effects of peripheral nerve injury on NKCC1 and KCC2 expression in DRG, spinal cord, ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus and S1 somatosensory cortex. After sciatic nerve section and suture in adult rats, assessment of mechanical and thermal pain thresholds showed evidence of hyperalgesia during the following 2 months. We also found an increase in NKCC1 expression in the DRG and a down-regulation of KCC2 in spinal cord after injury accompanied by later decrease of KCC2 levels in higher projection areas (VPL and S1) from 2 weeks postinjury, correlating with neuropathic pain signs. Administration of bumetanide (30mg/kg) during 2 weeks following sciatic nerve lesion prevented the previously observed changes in the spinothalamic tract projecting areas, and the appearance of hyperalgesia. In conclusion, the present results indicate that changes in NKCC1 and KCC2 in DRG, spinal cord and central pain areas may contribute to development of neuropathic pain.Pain 08/2014; · 5.64 Impact Factor