Transpiration from shoots triggers diurnal changes in root aquaporin expression.
ABSTRACT Root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) and aquaporin amounts change diurnally. Previously, these changes were considered to be spontaneously driven by a circadian rhythm. Here, we evaluated the new hypothesis that diurnal changes could be triggered and enhanced by transpirational demand from shoots. When rice plants were grown under a 12h light/12h dark regime, Lp(r) was low in the dark and high in the light period. Root aquaporin mRNA levels also changed diurnally, but the amplitudes differed among aquaporin isoforms. Aquaporins, such as OsPIP2;1, showed moderate changes, whereas root-specific aquaporins, such as OsPIP2;5, showed temporal and dramatic induction around 2h after light initiation. When darkness was extended for 12h after the usual dark period, no such induction was observed. Furthermore, plants under 100% relative humidity (RH) showed no induction even in the presence of light. These results suggest that transpirational demand triggers a dramatic increase in gene expressions such as OsPIP2;5. Immunocytochemistry showed that OsPIP2;5 accumulated on the proximal end of the endodermis and of the cell surface around xylem. The strong induction by transpirational demand and the polar localization suggest that OsPIP2;5 contributes to fine adjustment of radial water transport in roots to sustain high Lp(r) during the day.
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ABSTRACT: Conifer needles have been reported to absorb water under certain conditions. Radial water movement across needle tissues is likely influenced by aquaporin (AQP) water channels.Foliar water uptake and AQP localization in Picea glauca needles were studied using physiological and microscopic methods. AQP expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Members of the AQP gene family in spruce were identified using homology search tools.Needles of drought-stressed plants absorbed water when exposed to high relative humidity (RH). AQPs were present in the endodermis-like bundle sheath, in phloem cells and in the transfusion parenchyma of needles. Up-regulation of AQPs in high RH coincided with embolism repair in stem xylem. The present study also provides the most comprehensive functional and phylogenetic analysis of spruce AQPs to date. Thirty putative complete AQP sequences were found.Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AQPs facilitate radial water movement from the needle epidermis towards the vascular tissue. Foliar water uptake may occur in late winter when needles are covered by melting snow and may provide a water source for embolism repair before the beginning of the growing season.New Phytologist 04/2014; · 6.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although oxidative stress has been previously described in plants exposed to uranium (U), some uncertainty remains about the role of glutathione and tocopherol availability in the different responsiveness of plants to photo-oxidative damage. Moreover, in most cases, little consideration is given to the role of water transport in shoot heavy metal accumulation. Here, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate exposure (50 μM) on PSII and parameters involved in water transport (leaf transpiration and aquaporin gene expression) of Arabidopsis wild type (WT) and mutant plants that are deficient in tocopherol (vte1: null α/γ-tocopherol and vte4: null α-tocopherol) and glutathione biosynthesis (high content: cad1.3 and low content: cad2.1). We show how U exposure induced photosynthetic inhibition that entailed an electron sink/source imbalance that caused PSII photoinhibition in the mutants. The WT was the only line where U did not damage PSII. The increase in energy thermal dissipation observed in all the plants exposed to U did not avoid photo-oxidative damage of mutants. The maintenance of control of glutathione and malondialdehyde contents probed to be target points for the overcoming of photoinhibition in the WT. The relationship between leaf U content and leaf transpiration confirmed the relevance of water transport in heavy metals partitioning and accumulation in leaves, with the consequent implication of susceptibility to oxidative stress.Planta 01/2014; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increases in rates of individual leaf photosynthesis (P n) are critical for future increases of rice yields. A previous study, using introgression lines derived from a cross between indica cultivar Habataki, with one of the highest recorded values of P n, and the Japanese elite cultivar Koshihikari, identified four QTLs (qCAR4, qCAR5, qCAR8, and qCAR11) that affect P n. The present study examined the combined effect of qCAR4 and qCAR8 on P n in the genetic background of Koshihikari. The pyramided near-isogenic line NIL(qCAR4+qCAR8) showed higher P n than both NIL(qCAR4) and NIL(qCAR8), equivalent to that of Habataki despite being due to only two out of the four QTLs. The high P n of NIL(qCAR4+qCAR8) may be attributable to the high leaf nitrogen content, which may have been inherited from NIL(qCAR4), to the large hydraulic conductance due to the large root surface area from NIL(qCAR4), and to the high hydraulic conductivity from NIL(qCAR8). It might be also attributable to high mesophyll conductance, which may have been inherited from NIL(qCAR4). The induction of mesophyll conductance and the high leaf nitrogen content and high hydraulic conductivity could not be explained in isolation from the Koshihikari background. These results suggest that QTL pyramiding is a useful approach in rice breeding aimed at increasing P n.Journal of Experimental Botany 03/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor