Transpiration from shoots triggers diurnal changes in root aquaporin expression.
ABSTRACT Root hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) and aquaporin amounts change diurnally. Previously, these changes were considered to be spontaneously driven by a circadian rhythm. Here, we evaluated the new hypothesis that diurnal changes could be triggered and enhanced by transpirational demand from shoots. When rice plants were grown under a 12h light/12h dark regime, Lp(r) was low in the dark and high in the light period. Root aquaporin mRNA levels also changed diurnally, but the amplitudes differed among aquaporin isoforms. Aquaporins, such as OsPIP2;1, showed moderate changes, whereas root-specific aquaporins, such as OsPIP2;5, showed temporal and dramatic induction around 2h after light initiation. When darkness was extended for 12h after the usual dark period, no such induction was observed. Furthermore, plants under 100% relative humidity (RH) showed no induction even in the presence of light. These results suggest that transpirational demand triggers a dramatic increase in gene expressions such as OsPIP2;5. Immunocytochemistry showed that OsPIP2;5 accumulated on the proximal end of the endodermis and of the cell surface around xylem. The strong induction by transpirational demand and the polar localization suggest that OsPIP2;5 contributes to fine adjustment of radial water transport in roots to sustain high Lp(r) during the day.
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ABSTRACT: It has long been recognized that inhibition of plant water transport by either osmotic stress or salinity is mediated by aquaporins (AQPs), but the function and regulation of AQPs are highly variable among distinct isoforms and across different species. In this study, cucumber seedlings were subjected to PEG or NaCl stress for duration of 2h or 24h. The 2h treatment with PEG or NaCl had non-significant effect on the expression of plasma membrane AQP (CsPIPs) in roots, indicating the decrease in hydraulic conductivity of roots (Lpr) and root cells (Lprc) measured in these conditions were due to changes in AQP activity. After both 2h and 24h PEG or NaCl exposure, the decrease in hydraulic conductivity of leaves (Kleaf) and leaf cells (Lplc) could be attributed to a down-regulation of the two most highly expressed isoforms, CsPIP1;2 and CsPIP2;4. In roots, both Lpr and Lprc were further reduced after 24h PEG exposure, but partially recovered after 24h NaCl treatment, which were consistent with changes in the expression of CsPIP genes. Overall, the results demonstrated differential responses of CsPIPs in mediating water transport of cucumber seedlings, and the regulatory mechanisms differed according to applied stresses, stress durations, and specific organs.Plant Cell and Environment 03/2014; · 5.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increases in rates of individual leaf photosynthesis (P n) are critical for future increases of rice yields. A previous study, using introgression lines derived from a cross between indica cultivar Habataki, with one of the highest recorded values of P n, and the Japanese elite cultivar Koshihikari, identified four QTLs (qCAR4, qCAR5, qCAR8, and qCAR11) that affect P n. The present study examined the combined effect of qCAR4 and qCAR8 on P n in the genetic background of Koshihikari. The pyramided near-isogenic line NIL(qCAR4+qCAR8) showed higher P n than both NIL(qCAR4) and NIL(qCAR8), equivalent to that of Habataki despite being due to only two out of the four QTLs. The high P n of NIL(qCAR4+qCAR8) may be attributable to the high leaf nitrogen content, which may have been inherited from NIL(qCAR4), to the large hydraulic conductance due to the large root surface area from NIL(qCAR4), and to the high hydraulic conductivity from NIL(qCAR8). It might be also attributable to high mesophyll conductance, which may have been inherited from NIL(qCAR4). The induction of mesophyll conductance and the high leaf nitrogen content and high hydraulic conductivity could not be explained in isolation from the Koshihikari background. These results suggest that QTL pyramiding is a useful approach in rice breeding aimed at increasing P n.Journal of Experimental Botany 03/2014; · 5.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conifer needles have been reported to absorb water under certain conditions. Radial water movement across needle tissues is likely influenced by aquaporin (AQP) water channels.Foliar water uptake and AQP localization in Picea glauca needles were studied using physiological and microscopic methods. AQP expression was measured using quantitative real-time PCR. Members of the AQP gene family in spruce were identified using homology search tools.Needles of drought-stressed plants absorbed water when exposed to high relative humidity (RH). AQPs were present in the endodermis-like bundle sheath, in phloem cells and in the transfusion parenchyma of needles. Up-regulation of AQPs in high RH coincided with embolism repair in stem xylem. The present study also provides the most comprehensive functional and phylogenetic analysis of spruce AQPs to date. Thirty putative complete AQP sequences were found.Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AQPs facilitate radial water movement from the needle epidermis towards the vascular tissue. Foliar water uptake may occur in late winter when needles are covered by melting snow and may provide a water source for embolism repair before the beginning of the growing season.New Phytologist 04/2014; · 6.74 Impact Factor