Sources, Emissions, and Fate of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Indoors in Toronto, Canada
ABSTRACT Indoor air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in 20 locations in Toronto ranged 0.008-16 ng·m(-3) (median 0.071 ng·m(-3)) and 0.8-130.5 ng·m(-3) (median 8.5 ng·m(-3)), respectively. PBDE and PCB air concentrations in homes tended to be lower than that in offices. Principal component analysis of congener profiles suggested that electrical equipment was the main source of PBDEs in locations with higher concentrations, whereas PUF furniture and carpets were likely sources to locations with lower concentrations. PCB profiles in indoor air were similar to Aroclors 1248, 1232, and 1242 and some exterior building sealant profiles. Individual PBDE and PCB congener concentrations in air were positively correlated with colocated dust concentrations, but total PBDE and total PCB concentrations in these two media were not correlated. Equilibrium partitioning between air and dust was further examined using log-transformed dust/air concentration ratios for which lower brominated PBDEs and all PCBs were correlated with K(OA). This was not the case for higher brominated BDEs for which the measured ratios fell below those based on K(OA) suggesting the air-dust partitioning process could be kinetically limited. Total emissions of PBDEs and PCBs to one intensively studied office were estimated at 87-550 ng·h(-1) and 280-5870 ng·h(-1), respectively, using the Multimedia Indoor Model of Zhang et al. Depending on the air exchange rate, up to 90% of total losses from the office could be to outdoors by means of ventilation. These results support the hypotheses that dominant sources of PBDEs differ according to location and that indoor concentrations and hence emissions contribute to outdoor concentrations due to higher indoor than outdoor concentrations along with estimates of losses via ventilation.
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ABSTRACT: Halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) are a class of ubiquitous pollutants in the environment and attract increasing attention. In the present study, HFR concentrations were measured in indoor and outdoor dust in an important industrial city (Dongguan) in southern China, in which their presence and associated human exposure are unknown. The HFRs were dominated by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), with mean concentrations of 2365 and 2441ng/g in the indoor dust, respectively, which were 2-3 order of magnitude higher the concentrations of other HFRs. However elevated tri- to hepta-BDE concentrations (869ng/g) were found in Houjie Town, a furniture manufacturing center. The mean indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratios of HFR concentrations in the dust were all larger than one (1.55-16.4), suggesting the importance of indoors sources for HFRs in indoor dust in this industrial city. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the correlations among the HFRs in the indoor dust probably revealed differences in their commercial applications, while most HFRs in the outdoor dust have similar sources except for phased-out BDE47 and 99. The compositions of lower brominated PBDEs varied among the towns, probably due to their different sources or influence of photo-degradation. Nevertheless, the similar composition of highly brominated congeners indicated little photo-degradation encountered in the ambient environment. The non-cancer risk associated with indoor dust ingestion is low for the general population in Dongguan, but some children in the furniture manufacturing center have significantly high risk of exposure to banned PBDEs.Environmental Research 10/2014; 135C:190-195. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.09.013 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Three common industries that cause polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) pollution in Beijing, China, are solid waste incineration, chemical manufacturing, and coal-fired thermal power generation. This study was conducted to determine both the concentrations and profiles of 42 PBDEs in gaseous and particulate matter (including PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and total suspended particulate (TSP)) from the major industries listed above at three sites in Beijing. The total concentration of PBDEs (defined as the sum of 42 congeners in gas and TSP) were 60.5-216pgm(-3) at the solid waste incineration plant, 71.8-7500pgm(-3) at the chemical plant, and 34.4-454pgm(-3) at the coal-fired thermal power plant. The results indicate that the components of PBDE in gas were similar between three industrial sites, and the dominant congener was tri-BDEs. However, in particulate matter, the dominant BDEs were different between the three sites, possibly because they originated from different sources. In particulate matter, the dominant PBDEs were penta-BDEs at the solid waste incineration plant, deca-BDE at the coal-fired thermal power plant, and tetra-BDEs and deca-BDE at the chemical plant. Source analysis revealed that PBDE contamination might be associated with the use of different commercial PBDE flame-retardant mixtures. Results from a previous risk assessment indicated that the risk to human health was low. However, results from this study suggest that there is a potential threat associated with human exposure to PBDEs for the residents near these industrial sites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Chemosphere 12/2014; 123. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.11.043 · 3.50 Impact Factor