Indoor air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in 20 locations in Toronto ranged 0.008-16 ng·m(-3) (median 0.071 ng·m(-3)) and 0.8-130.5 ng·m(-3) (median 8.5 ng·m(-3)), respectively. PBDE and PCB air concentrations in homes tended to be lower than that in offices. Principal component analysis of congener profiles suggested that electrical equipment was the main source of PBDEs in locations with higher concentrations, whereas PUF furniture and carpets were likely sources to locations with lower concentrations. PCB profiles in indoor air were similar to Aroclors 1248, 1232, and 1242 and some exterior building sealant profiles. Individual PBDE and PCB congener concentrations in air were positively correlated with colocated dust concentrations, but total PBDE and total PCB concentrations in these two media were not correlated. Equilibrium partitioning between air and dust was further examined using log-transformed dust/air concentration ratios for which lower brominated PBDEs and all PCBs were correlated with K(OA). This was not the case for higher brominated BDEs for which the measured ratios fell below those based on K(OA) suggesting the air-dust partitioning process could be kinetically limited. Total emissions of PBDEs and PCBs to one intensively studied office were estimated at 87-550 ng·h(-1) and 280-5870 ng·h(-1), respectively, using the Multimedia Indoor Model of Zhang et al. Depending on the air exchange rate, up to 90% of total losses from the office could be to outdoors by means of ventilation. These results support the hypotheses that dominant sources of PBDEs differ according to location and that indoor concentrations and hence emissions contribute to outdoor concentrations due to higher indoor than outdoor concentrations along with estimates of losses via ventilation.
"Detected BFRs ranged from 74% to 100% in the gas-phase except for only 30% for BDE-153 (Table S4). These results agree with the ranges of 61–83%, 77–100% and 64–100% reported by Abdallah and Harrad (2010), Zhang et al. (2011) and Bohlin et al. (2014b) "
"Higher concentrations in red color (in the web version) were detected at some areas such as 1‒3, probably due to the poor ventilation, whereas the levels of PBDEs near the office entrance areas were lower. Batterman et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2009, 2011 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the levels and spatial distribution of PBDEs in 9 typical offices in Shanghai, China through the sample analysis of air and settled dust (floor dust, desktop dust and dust in computer case). PBDEs in air ranged from 93 to 322 pg/m3, while the PBDEs levels in dust varied from 247 to 3.3 × 104 ng/g. Spatial variability of PBDEs in office dust was evident and likely influenced by air exchange and the use of electronic devices. A significant positive linear correlation was observed between the power usage rate and PBDE levels in both office air (R2 = 0.81) and settled dust (R2 = 0.94). The PBDEs exposure via inhalation and dust ingestion were both analyzed to estimate the life-time cancer risk, which is 1.34 × 10−22 to 7.16 × 10−22, significantly lower than the threshold level (10−6). Non-cancer risk indicated by the hazard index (<1) is also low in current exposure conditions.
"Human populations are more likely being exposed to airborne, LC-PCBs by inhalation, rather than by ingestion (Harrad et al. 2009, Robertson and Ludewig 2011). Indoor inhalation exposure to PCBs is of concern in schools and other buildings that were built in the 1950s and 1960s, as demonstrated by a number of studies investigating indoor exposure to PCBs in the United States and Europe (Herrick 2010, Herrick et al. 2004, MacIntosh et al. 2012, Gabrio et al. 2000, Jamshidi et al. 2007, Harrad et al. 2010, Zhang et al. 2011). During this time, the caulking and other building materials used in construction contained high levels of PCBs, and the aff ected buildings still represent a major source for chronic inhalation exposures. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity, and thereby on the assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general, and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism, and to identify the metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology 01/2015; DOI:10.3109/10408444.2014.999365 · 5.10 Impact Factor
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