Sources, Emissions, and Fate of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls Indoors in Toronto, Canada

Department of Geography, University of Toronto , Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G3, Canada.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2011; 45(8):3268-74. DOI: 10.1021/es102767g
Source: PubMed


Indoor air concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in 20 locations in Toronto ranged 0.008-16 ng·m(-3) (median 0.071 ng·m(-3)) and 0.8-130.5 ng·m(-3) (median 8.5 ng·m(-3)), respectively. PBDE and PCB air concentrations in homes tended to be lower than that in offices. Principal component analysis of congener profiles suggested that electrical equipment was the main source of PBDEs in locations with higher concentrations, whereas PUF furniture and carpets were likely sources to locations with lower concentrations. PCB profiles in indoor air were similar to Aroclors 1248, 1232, and 1242 and some exterior building sealant profiles. Individual PBDE and PCB congener concentrations in air were positively correlated with colocated dust concentrations, but total PBDE and total PCB concentrations in these two media were not correlated. Equilibrium partitioning between air and dust was further examined using log-transformed dust/air concentration ratios for which lower brominated PBDEs and all PCBs were correlated with K(OA). This was not the case for higher brominated BDEs for which the measured ratios fell below those based on K(OA) suggesting the air-dust partitioning process could be kinetically limited. Total emissions of PBDEs and PCBs to one intensively studied office were estimated at 87-550 ng·h(-1) and 280-5870 ng·h(-1), respectively, using the Multimedia Indoor Model of Zhang et al. Depending on the air exchange rate, up to 90% of total losses from the office could be to outdoors by means of ventilation. These results support the hypotheses that dominant sources of PBDEs differ according to location and that indoor concentrations and hence emissions contribute to outdoor concentrations due to higher indoor than outdoor concentrations along with estimates of losses via ventilation.

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    • "Detected BFRs ranged from 74% to 100% in the gas-phase except for only 30% for BDE-153 (Table S4). These results agree with the ranges of 61–83%, 77–100% and 64–100% reported by Abdallah and Harrad (2010), Zhang et al. (2011) and Bohlin et al. (2014b) "
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    ABSTRACT: Two passive air samplers (PAS), polyurethane foam (PUF) disks and Sorbent Impregnated PUF (SIP) disks, were characterized for uptake of phthalates and brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) indoors using fully and partially sheltered housings. Based on calibration against an active low-volume air sampler for gas- and particle-phase compounds, we recommend generic sampling rates of 3.5±0.9 and 1.0±0.4m(3)/day for partially and fully sheltered housing, respectively, which applies to gas-phase phthalates and BFRs as well as particle-phase DEHP (the later for the partially sheltered PAS). For phthalates, partially sheltered SIPs are recommended. Further, we recommend the use of partially sheltered PAS indoors and a deployment period of one month. The sampling rate for the partially sheltered PUF and SIP of 3.5±0.9m(3)/day is indistinguishable from that reported for fully sheltered PAS deployed outdoors, indicating the role of the housing outdoors to minimize the effect of variable wind velocities on chemical uptake, versus the partially sheltered PAS deployed indoors to maximize chemical uptake where air flow rates are low. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Chemosphere 07/2015; 137:166-173. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.06.099 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "Higher concentrations in red color (in the web version) were detected at some areas such as 1‒3, probably due to the poor ventilation, whereas the levels of PBDEs near the office entrance areas were lower. Batterman et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2009, 2011 "
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    Environmental Pollution 03/2015; 198. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2014.12.024 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    • "Human populations are more likely being exposed to airborne, LC-PCBs by inhalation, rather than by ingestion (Harrad et al. 2009, Robertson and Ludewig 2011). Indoor inhalation exposure to PCBs is of concern in schools and other buildings that were built in the 1950s and 1960s, as demonstrated by a number of studies investigating indoor exposure to PCBs in the United States and Europe (Herrick 2010, Herrick et al. 2004, MacIntosh et al. 2012, Gabrio et al. 2000, Jamshidi et al. 2007, Harrad et al. 2010, Zhang et al. 2011). During this time, the caulking and other building materials used in construction contained high levels of PCBs, and the aff ected buildings still represent a major source for chronic inhalation exposures. "
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Xianming Zhang