Trauma, burns or surgery can cause people to lose large amounts of blood. Fluid replacement, giving fluids intravenously (into a vein) to replace lost blood, is used to try to maintain blood pressure and reduce the risk of dying. Blood products, non-blood products or combinations are used, including colloid or crystalloid solutions. Colloids are increasingly used but they are more expensive than crystalloids. This review of trials found no evidence that colloids reduce the risk of dying compared with crystalloids.
"Albumin is used by us in accordance with the " Lund concept " of brain injury resuscitation (Grande 2011), and for us, it was natural to replace HES with HA. However, in large metaanalyses on the effectiveness of HA on patient mortality and morbidity, no significant benefits have been shown when comparing HA to synthetic colloids or crystalloids (Perel et al. 2013; Roberts et al. 2011). HA may have lesser impact on coagulation compared to synthetic colloids (Niemi et al. 2006), which is a desirable quality for perioperative use. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The European Medicines Agency does not recommend the use of hydroxyethyl starch-based volume replacement solutions in critically ill patients due to an increased risk of renal failure. However, this recommendation is questionable for its perioperative use. Several recent randomised controlled studies do not indicate a risk for renal failure—not even after high-risk surgery. Human albumin is used in our neurointensive care unit as a part of the “Lund concept” of brain injury resuscitation, and albumin has been introduced in elective neurosurgery instead of starch. The aim of our prospective unblinded observational cohort study was to compare the degree of dilutive coagulopathy after albumin and starch intra-operative fluid therapy.
Thirty-nine patients undergoing elective brain tumour surgery with craniotomy received either 130/0.42 hydroxyethyl starch or 5 % albumin infusions. The first 18 patients received starch, whereas the rest received albumin. Rotational thromboelastometry with ROTEM and platelet aggregometry with Multiplate were performed before surgery, after the first and second consecutive colloid infusions (250/500 ml albumin or 500/1000 ml starch) and at the end of surgery.
Both intra- and inter-group comparisons showed more deranged ROTEM parameters after the higher doses of starch. Multiplate detected changes only in the albumin group after 500-ml infusion. Blood los did not differ between groups, nor did haemoglobin preoperatively or at end of surgery. Lower volumes of albumin were required to maintain stable intra-operative haemodynamic parameters; 250/500 ml albumin corresponded to 500/1000 ml starch.
Hydroxyethyl starch affected coagulation at lower volumes, with a more prominent effect on clot structure at the end of surgery, corroborating previous research. Only albumin decreased platelet aggregation, and 5 % albumin had a more potential volume effect than 130/0.42 hydroxyethyl starch.
"Inspired by this, we hypothesized that a 50-ml infusion of crystalloid over 10 seconds could predict fluid responsiveness. Although this fluid regime was arbitrarily chosen, it was based on the peak increase in intravascular volume with lactated crystalloid solution occurring immediately after completion of the rapid fluid infusion [36,37] and the low clinical risk of crystalloid solution [22,38]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The accurate assessment of intravascular volume status for the therapy of severe hypovolemia and shock is difficult and critical to critically ill patients. Noninvasive evaluation of fluid responsiveness by the rapid infusion of a very limited amount of volume is an important clinical goal. This study aimed to test if echocardiographic parameters could predict fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients following a low-volume (50ml crystalloid solution) infusion over 10 seconds.
"Due to those adverse effects, the interest in intravascular volume expansion using human albumin is increasing. However, a recent meta-analysis on the use of colloids in general critically ill populations found no difference in mortality among the different colloids compared to crystalloids . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) fluid therapy might be necessary. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effects of colloid therapy compared to crystalloids on mortality and oxygenation in adults with ARDS.
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) identified through a systematic literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS. Article published up to 15th February 2013 were independently screened, abstracted, and assessed (Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool) to provide evidence-based therapy recommendations. RCTs were eligible if they compared colloid versus crystalloid therapy on lung function, inflammation, damage or mortality in adults with ARDS. Primary outcome parameters were respiratory mechanics, gas exchange lung inflammation and damage as well as hospital mortality. Kidney function, need for renal replacement therapy, hemodynamic stabilization and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay served as secondary outcomes.
A total of 3 RCTs out of 4130 potential trials found in the databases were selected for qualitative and quantitative analysis totaling 206 patients who received either albumin or saline. Overall risk of bias was unclear to high in the identified trials. Calculated pooled risk of death was not statistically significant (albumin 34 of 100 (34.0%) versus 40 of 104 (38.5%), relative risk (RR) = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 1.28, P = 0.539). Weighted mean difference (WMD) in PaO2/FiO2 [mmHg] improved in the first 48 hours (WMD = 62, 95% CI 47 to 77, P <0.001, I2 = 0%) after therapy start and remained stable after 7 days (WMD = 20, 95% CI 4 to 36, P = 0.017, I2 = 0%).
There is a high need for RCTs investigating the effects of colloids in ARDS patients. Based on the findings of this review, colloid therapy with albumin improved oxygenation but did not affect mortality.
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