Reproductive biology: Progesterone's gateway into sperm.
ABSTRACT The hormone progesterone rapidly activates intracellular signalling in human sperm, regulating key aspects of their physiology. An ion channel unique to the sperm tail seems to relay progesterone's signal. See Letters p.382 & p.387
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- "When human spermatozoa are exposed to progesterone stimulation , the CatSper channels are directly activated and the calcium stores can be indirectly motivated by progesterone (Koulen et al., 2008; Publicover et al., 2007; Strünker et al., 2011). The Ca 2 þ diffusion due to its concentration difference will induce the intracellular Ca 2 þ dynamic response in spermatozoa. "
ABSTRACT: Calcium ion is a secondary messenger of mammalian spermatozoa. The dynamic change of its concentration plays a vital role in the process of sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome and fertilization. Progesterone released by the cumulus cells, as a potent stimulator of fertilization, can activate the calcium channels on the plasma membrane, which in turn triggers the dynamic change of intracellular calcium concentration. In this paper, a mathematical model of calcium dynamic response in mammalian spermatozoa induced by progesterone is proposed and numerical simulation of the dynamic model is conducted. The results show that the dynamic response of calcium concentration predicted by the model is in accordance with experimental evidence. The proposed dynamic model can be used to explain the phenomena observed in the experiments and predict new phenomena to be revealed by experimental investigations, which will provide the basis to quantitatively investigate the fluid mechanics and biochemistry for the sperm motility induced by progesterone.Journal of Theoretical Biology 03/2014; 351. DOI:10.1016/j.jtbi.2014.02.026 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have demonstrated a female disadvantage in airway diseases, such as asthma and bronchiectasis. The basis for this sex disparity is unknown. We hypothesized that the female sex hormone, progesterone (P4), inhibits functions of the normal airway mucociliary apparatus. P4 receptor (PR) expression was evaluated in human lung and cultured primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from male and female lung transplant donors. PR expression was restricted to the proximal region of the cilia of airway epithelia, and was similar in men and women. Expression of isoform PR-B was more abundant than PR-A in cells from both sexes. Airway epithelial cell exposure to P4 decreased cilia beat frequency (CBF) by 42.3% (±7.2). Inhibition of CBF was prevented by coadministration of P4 with the active form of estrogen, 17β-estradiol, or the PR antagonist, mifepristone. P4 inhibition was time and dose dependent, with a significant decrease by 8 hours and maximal effect at 24 hours, accompanied by translocation of PR from the cilia to the nucleus. Inhibition of cilia beat was also prevented by treatment of cells with actinomycin D, suggesting that CBF inhibition is a transcriptionally mediated event. Together, these findings indicate that sex hormones influence the function of a key component of the mucociliary apparatus. These mechanisms may contribute to the sex disparity present in airway diseases and provide therapeutic targets for the treatment of these debilitating airway diseases.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 10/2011; 46(4):446-53. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2011-0107OC · 4.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: After almost 30 years of research, the existence of nongenomic steroid actions is no longer disputed. Yet, there is still a debate on the nature of receptors involved, and answers to the inherent questions are important for translational activities. In the case of aldosterone, the existence of receptors different from the classic mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) had been postulated 25 years ago as the pharmacology of about 50% of rapid actions of aldosterone reported so far is incompatible with MR involvement (insensitivity to classic MR antagonists). Candidates proposed as alternatives to MR were protein kinase C, sodium-potassium ATPase or aberrant forms of MR, none of which supported convincing evidence to represent 'the aldosterone membrane receptor'. Early in 2011, data on GPR30 showed its involvement in rapid aldosterone action, and major pharmacological aspects of this action are compatible with the landmark deviations from MR pharmacology mentioned above. GPR30, therefore, may be a receptor candidate for nongenomic aldosterone action. Similarly, a variety of promising candidates mediating rapid progesterone action has been described, including progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) which seems to be associated with tumor proliferation, and membrane progesterone receptor (mPR) originally identified in fish with potential linkage to reproductive processes. So far, no candidate was unanimously convincing. In 2010, two independent groups reported that CatSper, a calcium channel, is a strong receptor candidate for the rapid action of progesterone on sperm fertilization. With these novel receptors cloned, translational activities ultimately leading to new drugs for cardiovascular protection (in the case of aldosterone) or fertilization benefits (for progesterone) are much more promising.Steroids 01/2012; 77(10):1002-6. DOI:10.1016/j.steroids.2011.12.023 · 2.72 Impact Factor