Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α regulates the expression of the mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor protein (IF1) in rat liver.
ABSTRACT A growing number of reports indicate that bioenergetic failure plays a crucial role in the development of multiple organ failure during sepsis. Our previous results showed that the suppression of IF1 (mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor protein) expression and subsequent elevated mitochondrial F(o)F₁-ATPase activity might contribute to the bioenergetic failure in the liver during sepsis, and the influence of the decreased transcriptional level of IF1 might be an important factor. In this study, we investigated the interaction of IF1 protein expression and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor that is correlated with the inflammatory status in sepsis. The results showed that nuclear HIF-1α protein, a subunit of HIF-1, and IF1 mRNA expression were coincidently reduced in late septic liver of rats. Furthermore, in vitro, overexpression of HIF-1α by hypoxia or CoCl₂ (HIF-1α activator) treatment augmented IF1 protein levels. On the contrary, HIF-1α antisense oligonucleotide and siRNA were used to specifically downregulate HIF-1α expression, and then IF1 protein levels were significantly decreased in clone 9 cells. Meanwhile, downregulation of HIF-1α expression led to elevate the mitochondrial F(o)F₁-ATPase activity in the presence of Bis-Tris buffer (pH 6.5). In conclusion, these results suggested for the first time that the HIF-1 might play a crucial role in regulating IF1 protein expression in late septic liver.
Article: Glucose-modulated mitochondria adaptation in tumor cells: a focus on ATP synthase and inhibitor factor 1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Warburg's hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking "positive" (activation/biogenesis) or "negative" (silencing) mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase β subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1). Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-α suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on β-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(2):1933-50. · 2.60 Impact Factor