Characterization of early stage cartilage degradation using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT Interest in localized and early stage treatment technologies for joint conditions such as osteoarthritis is growing rapidly. It has therefore become important to develop objective measures capable of characterizing the earliest (non-visible) changes associated with degeneration to aid treatment procedures. In addition to assessing tissue before treatment, it is further important to develop an effective, non-destructive means of monitoring post-treatment tissue healing, and of providing the high-quality data needed for trials of developing treatment methods. To investigate its ability to detect the early stages of degeneration in cartilage-on-bone, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy was applied to normal and osteoarthritic joints. A discriminating function was developed to relate absorbance peaks of interest and track degradation around focal osteoarthritic defects. The function could distinguish between normal and degraded tissue (100% separation of normal tissue from that within 25 mm of a defect) and between different stages of osteoarthritic progression (p < 0.05). This technique allows simple, practical and non-destructive assessment of component-level properties over the full depth of the tissue. It has the potential to increase our understanding of the underlying etiologic and pathogenic processes in early stage degeneration, to assist classification and the development of new treatment methods.
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ABSTRACT: Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) could be of clinical relevance in modern cartilage regeneration.In a miniature pig model correlation of measurements and histologic scores have never been used before. The data analysis was part of an animal project that investigated the effects of seeding a chondrogenic and osteogenic scaffold with a bone-marrow-derived cell concentrate and reports the histological and mechanical properties. We created 20 osteochondral defects in the femoral condyles of 10 miniature pigs.The defects were left empty (E), filled with the grafted cylinder upside down (U), or with a combined scaffold (S) containing a spongy bone cylinder covered with a collagen membrane. In the fourth group, the same scaffolds were implanted but seeded with a stem cell concentrate (S+BMCC). The animals were euthanized after 3 months, and histologic and spectrometric analyses were performed. NIRS measurements were significantly higher in the central area of the defects of group S+BMCC compared to the central area of the defects of group U. In all groups, a correlation between NIRS and the histologic scores could be demonstrated though on different levels. In the central area, a good NIRS measurement correlates with low (good) histologic scores. In group E and group S, this negative correlation was significant (p=0.01). For the first time, NIRS was successfully used to evaluate osteochondral constructs in a miniature pig model.The Open Orthopaedics Journal 05/2014; 8:93-9.
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ABSTRACT: Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to assess hyaline cartilage quality in human and animal osteochondral tissues. However, due to the lack of NIR signal from bone phosphate and the relatively deep penetration depth of the radiation, the separate contributions of cartilage and bone to the spectral signatures have not been well defined. The objectives of the current study were (1) to improve the understanding of the contributions of bone and cartilage to NIR spectra acquired from osteochondral tissue and (2) to assess the ability of this nondestructive method to predict cartilage thickness and modified Mankin grade of human tibial plateau articular cartilage. Near-infrared spectra were acquired from samples of bovine bone and cartilage with varying thicknesses and from 22 tibial plateaus harvested from patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. The spectra were recorded from regions of the tibial plateaus with varying degrees of degradation, and the cartilage thickness and modified Mankin grade of these regions were assessed histologically. The spectra from bone and cartilage samples of known thicknesses were investigated to identify spectral regions that were distinct for these two tissues. Univariate and multivariate linear regression methods were used to correlate modified Mankin grade and cartilage thickness with NIR spectral changes. The ratio of the NIR absorbances associated with water at 5270 and 7085 cm−1 was the best differentiator of cartilage and bone spectra. The NIR prediction models for thickness and Mankin grade calculated using partial least squares regression were more accurate than were univariate-based prediction models, with a root mean square errors of cross-validation of 0.42 mm (for thickness) and 1.3 (for modified Mankin grade). We conclude that NIR spectroscopy may be used to simultaneously assess articular cartilage thickness and modified Mankin grade, based in part on differences in spectral contributions from bone and cartilage.Applied Spectroscopy 10/2014; 68(10). · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes in the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are characteristic of injury or disease in cartilage tissue. Various imaging modalities and biochemical techniques have been used to assess the changes in cartilage tissue but lack adequate sensitivity, or in the case of biochemical techniques, result in destruction of the sample. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, has shown promise for the study of cartilage composition. In the current study NIR spectroscopy was used to identify the contributions of individual components of cartilage in the NIR spectra by assessment of the major cartilage components, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, in pure component mixtures. The NIR spectra were obtained using homogenous pellets made by dilution with potassium bromide. A partial least squares (PLS) model was calculated to predict composition in bovine cartilage samples. Characteristic absorbance peaks between 4000 and 5000 cm− 1 could be attributed to components of cartilage, i.e. collagen and chondroitin sulfate. Prediction of the amount of collagen and chondroitin sulfate in tissues was possible within 8% (w/dw) of values obtained by gold standard biochemical assessment. These results support the use of NIR spectroscopy for in vitro and in vivo applications to assess matrix composition of cartilage tissues, especially when tissue destruction should be avoided.Matrix Biology 09/2014; · 3.65 Impact Factor