Cellular Changes Underlying Hyperoxia-Induced Delay of White Matter Development

Center for Neuroscience Research, Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.
The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.34). 03/2011; 31(11):4327-44. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3942-10.2011
Source: PubMed


Impaired neurological development in premature infants frequently arises from periventricular white matter injury (PWMI), a condition associated with myelination abnormalities. Recently, exposure to hyperoxia was reported to disrupt myelin formation in neonatal rats. To identify the causes of hyperoxia-induced PWMI, we characterized cellular changes in the white matter (WM) using neonatal wild-type 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-EGFP transgenic mice exposed to 48 h of 80% oxygen from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P8. Myelin basic protein expression and CC1(+) oligodendroglia decreased after hyperoxia at P8, but returned to control levels during recovery between P12 and P15. At P8, hyperoxia caused apoptosis of NG2(+)O4(-) progenitor cells and reduced NG2(+) cell proliferation. This was followed by restoration of the NG2(+) cell population and increased oligodendrogenesis in the WM after recovery. Despite apparent cellular recovery, diffusion tensor imaging revealed WM deficiencies at P30 and P60. Hyperoxia did not affect survival or proliferation of astrocytes in vivo, but modified GFAP and glutamate-aspartate transporter expression. The rate of [(3)H]-d-aspartic acid uptake in WM tissue was also decreased at P8 and P12. Furthermore, cultured astrocytes exposed to hyperoxia showed a reduced capacity to protect oligodendrocyte progenitor cells against the toxic effects of exogenous glutamate. This effect was prevented by 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide treatment. Our analysis reveals a role for altered glutamate homeostasis in hyperoxia-induced WM damage. Understanding the cellular dynamics and underlying mechanisms involved in hyperoxia-induced PWMI will allow for future targeted therapeutic intervention.

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    • "Astrocytes react with a biphasic response to hyperoxia, i.e. GFAP and glutamate uptake transporter expression is down-regulated immediately after hyperoxia whereas GFAP significantly increases on P12 (Schmitz et al., 2011). These data suggest that astrocytes rather protect oligodendrocyte precursor cells from glutamate-induced toxicity after hyperoxia than contribute to acute induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebral white matter injury is a leading cause of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in prematurely born infants involving cognitive deficits in later life. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury, therapeutic options are limited. In the adult demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulating substance fingolimod (FTY720) has beneficial effects. Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a neonatal model of oxygen-toxicity, which is associated with hypomyelination and impaired neuro-cognitive outcome. A single dose of FTY720 (1 mg/kg) at the onset of neonatal hyperoxia (24 h 80% oxygen on postnatal day 6) resulted in improvement of neuro-cognitive development persisting into adulthood. This was associated with reduced microstructural white matter abnormalities 4 months after the insult. In search of the underlying mechanisms potential non-classical (i.e. lymphocyte-independent) pathways were analysed shortly after the insult, comprising modulation of oxidative stress and local inflammatory responses as well as myelination, oligodendrocyte degeneration and maturation. Treatment with FTY720 reduced hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress, microglia activation and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In vivo and in vitro analyses further revealed that oxygen-induced hypomyelination is restored to control levels, which was accompanied by reduced oligodendrocyte degeneration and enhanced maturation. Furthermore, hyperoxia-induced elevation of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) protein expression on in vitro cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells was reduced by activated FTY720 and protection from degeneration is abrogated after selective S1P1 blockade. Finally, FTY720s' classical mode of action (i.e. retention of immune cells within peripheral lymphoid organs) was analysed demonstrating that FTY720 diminished circulating lymphocyte counts independent from hyperoxia. Cerebral immune cell counts remained unchanged by hyperoxia and by FTY720 treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that beneficial effects of FTY720 in neonatal oxygen-induced brain injury may be rather attributed to its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity acting in concert with a direct protection of developing oligodendrocytes than to a modulation of peripheral lymphocyte trafficking. Thus, FTY720 might be a potential new therapeutic option for the treatment of neonatal brain injury through reduction of white matter damage.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.10.004 · 5.89 Impact Factor
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    • "The glial cells in hypoxic neonatal brain were activated and released excessive inflammatory mediators, which disturbed the physiological process of myelination by attacking the axons and pre-oligodendrocytes (pre-OLs) [12], [13]. It has been well documented that activated microglial cells and astrocytes may be main source of inflammatory mediators in neonatal brain under pathological conditions [14], [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxic exposure in the perinatal period causes periventricular white matter damage (PWMD), a condition associated with myelination abnormalities. Under hypoxic conditions, glial cells were activated and released a large number of inflammatory mediators in the PWM in neonatal brain, which may result in oligodendrocyte (OL) loss and axonal injury. This study aims to determine if astrocytes are activated and generate proinflammatory cytokines that may be coupled with the oligodendroglial loss and hypomyelination observed in hypoxic PWMD. Twenty-four 1-day-old Wistar rats were exposed to hypoxia for 2 h. The rats were then allowed to recover under normoxic conditions for 7 or 28 days before being killed. Another group of 24 rats kept outside the chamber was used as age-matched controls. Upregulated expression of TNF-α and IL-1β was observed in astrocytes in the PWM of P7 hypoxic rats by double immunofluorescence, western blotting and real time RT-PCR. This was linked to apoptosis and enhanced expression of TNF-R1 and IL-1R1 in APC(+) OLs. PLP expression was decreased significantly in the PWM of P28d hypoxic rats. The proportion of myelinated axons was markedly reduced by electron microscopy (EM) and the average g-ratios were higher in P28d hypoxic rats. Upregulated expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in primary cultured astrocytes as well as their corresponding receptors in primary culture APC(+) oligodendrocytes were detected under hypoxic conditions. Our results suggest that following a hypoxic insult, astrocytes in the PWM of neonatal rats produce inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, which induce apoptosis of OLs via their corresponding receptors associated with them. This results in hypomyelination in the PWM of hypoxic rats.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87420. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087420 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Since the final consequence of impaired oligodendroglia is the disturbance of myelination [11], [32], [33], we investigated the degree of myelin basic protein (MBP) expression four days after hyperoxia exposure (P11) in rat pups treated at P3 with LPS and at P6 with hyperoxia (Fig. 2A) as well as in the time matched application (Fig. 2B). As revealed by western blot analysis (Fig. 2A), all treated groups exhibited a decrease of MBP expression. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intrauterine infection and inflammation are major reasons for preterm birth. The switch from placenta-mediated to lung-mediated oxygen supply during birth is associated with a sudden rise of tissue oxygen tension that amounts to relative hyperoxia in preterm infants. Both infection/inflammation and hyperoxia have been shown to be involved in brain injury of preterm infants. Hypothesizing that they might be additive or synergistic, we investigated the influence of a systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) application on hyperoxia-induced white matter damage (WMD) in newborn rats. Three-day-old Wistar rat pups received 0.25 mg/kg LPS i.p. and were subjected to 80% oxygen on P6 for 24 h. The extent of WMD was assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blots, and diffusion tensor (DT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, the effects of LPS and hyperoxia were studied in an in vitro co-culture system of primary rat oligodendrocytes and microglia cells. Both noxious stimuli, hyperoxia, and LPS caused hypomyelination as revealed by western blot, immunohistochemistry, and altered WM microstructure on DT-MRI. Even so, cellular changes resulting in hypomyelination seem to be different. While hyperoxia induces cell death, LPS induces oligodendrocyte maturity arrest without cell death as revealed by TUNEL-staining and immunohistological maturation analysis. In the two-hit scenario cell death is reduced compared with hyperoxia treated animals, nevertheless white matter alterations persist. Concordantly with these in vivo findings we demonstrate that LPS pre-incubation reduced premyelinating-oligodendrocyte susceptibility towards hyperoxia in vitro. This protective effect might be caused by upregulation of interleukin-10 and superoxide dismutase expression after LPS stimulation. Reduced expression of transcription factors controlling oligodendrocyte development and maturation further indicates oligodendrocyte maturity arrest. The knowledge about mechanisms that triggered hypomyelination contributes to a better understanding of WMD in premature born infants.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e49023. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0049023 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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