Insulin Suppresses the Expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein, Presenilins, and Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 beta in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells
ABSTRACT Our objective was to determine whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells express amyloid precursor protein (APP) and other mediators involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and whether their expression is suppressed by insulin.
Ten obese type 2 diabetic patients were infused with insulin (2 U/h with 100 ml 5% dextrose/h) for 4 h. Patients were also infused with 5% dextrose/h or normal physiological saline for 4 h, respectively, on two other days as controls. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h.
Insulin infusion significantly suppressed the expression of APP, presenilin-1, presenilin-2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Dextrose and saline infusions did not alter these indices. Insulin infusion also caused significant parallel reductions in nuclear factor-κB binding activity and plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A and intercellular adhesion molecule-1.
A low dose infusion of insulin suppresses APP, presenilin-1, presenilin-2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, key proteins involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, in parallel with exerting its other antiinflammatory effects.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered to be a risk factor for dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this risk is not well understood. We examined gene expression profiles in postmortem human brains donated for the Hisayama study. Three-way analysis of variance of microarray data from frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and hippocampus was performed with the presence/absence of AD and vascular dementia, and sex, as factors. Comparative analyses of expression changes in the brains of AD patients and a mouse model of AD were also performed. Relevant changes in gene expression identified by microarray analysis were validated by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The hippocampi of AD brains showed the most significant alteration in gene expression profile. Genes involved in noninsulin-dependent DM and obesity were significantly altered in both AD brains and the AD mouse model, as were genes related to psychiatric disorders and AD. The alterations in the expression profiles of DM-related genes in AD brains were independent of peripheral DM-related abnormalities. These results indicate that altered expression of genes related to DM in AD brains is a result of AD pathology, which may thereby be exacerbated by peripheral insulin resistance or DM.Cerebral Cortex 04/2013; DOI:10.1093/cercor/bht101 · 8.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 3β-Hydroxysteroid-Δ24 reductase (DHCR24) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized multifunctional enzyme that possesses anti-apoptotic and cholesterol-synthesizing activities. Accumulating evidence suggests that ER stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we investigated whether DHCR24 may function as a neuroprotective protein under ER stress. Neuroblastoma N2A cells were infected with adenovirus expressing myc-tagged DHCR24 (Ad-DHCR24) or lacZ (Ad-lacZ, serving as a control) and subjected to ER-stress, induced with Tunicamycin (TM). Cells infected with Ad-DHCR24-myc were resistant to TM-induced apoptosis, and showed weaker level of caspase-12 activity. These cells also exhibited lower levels of Bip and CHOP proteins than Ad-LacZ-infected cells. Moreover, a stronger and rapid activation of PERK, and a prolonged activation of JNK and p38 were observed in Ad-LacZ-infected cells. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species from ER stress was also diminished by the overexpression of DHCR24. Additionally, intracellular cholesterol level was also elevated in the Ad-DHCR24-infected cells, accompanied by a well-organized formation of caveolae (cholesterol-rich microdomain) on the plasma membrane, and improved colocalization of caveolin-1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. These results demonstrated for the first time that DHCR24 could protect neuronal cells from apoptosis induced by ER stress.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86753. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086753 · 3.53 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with two hallmarks: β-amyloid plagues and neurofibrillary tangles. It is one of the most alarming illnesses to elderly people. No effective drugs and therapies have been developed, while mechanism-based explorations of therapeutic approaches have been intensively investigated. Outcomes of clinical trials suggested several pitfalls in the choice of biomarkers, development of drug candidates, and interaction of drug-targeted molecules; however, they also aroused concerns on the potential deficiency in our understanding of pathogenesis of AD, and ultimately stimulated the advent of novel drug targets tests. The anticipated increase of AD patients in next few decades makes development of better therapy an urgent issue. Here we attempt to summarize and compare putative therapeutic strategies that have completed clinical trials or are currently being tested from various perspectives to provide insights for treatments of Alzheimer's disease.BioMed Research International 01/2014; 2014:837157. DOI:10.1155/2014/837157 · 2.71 Impact Factor