Cysteine proteinase type I, encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles induces substantial protection against Leishmania major infection in C57BL/6 mice.
ABSTRACT Appropriate adjuvant, proper antigen(s) and a suitable formulation are required to develop stable, safe and immunogenic vaccines. Leishmanial cysteine proteinase type I (CPB) is a promising vaccine candidate; nevertheless, it requires a delivery system to induce a potent immune response. Herein, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been applied for CPB [with and without C-terminal extension (CTE)] formulation to utilize as a vaccine against Leishmania major infection in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, SLN-CPB and SLN-CPB(-CTE) formulations were prepared from cetyl palmitate and cholesterol, using melt emulsification method. After intraperitoneal vaccination and subsequent L. major challenge, a strong antigen-specific T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response was induced compared to control groups. Lymph node cells from immunized mice displayed lower parasite burden, higher IFN-γ, IgG2a and lower IL-4 production, indicating that robust Th1 immune response had been induced. Our results revealed that CTE is not necessary for inducing protective responses against L. major infection as the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was significantly higher, whereas IgG1 responses were lower in the SLN-CPB(-CTE) vaccinated group, post-challenge. Thus, SLN-CPB(-CTE) was shown to induce specific Th1 immune responses to control L. major infection, through effective antigen delivery to the peritoneal antigen presenting cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Tatiana Moura[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vaccine development has been a priority in the fight against leishmaniases, which are vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa. Among the different immunization strategies employed to date is inoculation of plasmid DNA coding for parasite antigens, which has a demonstrated ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. In this sense, inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding Leishmania kinetoplasmid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) was able to confer protection against visceral leishmaniasis. However, recently the use of antigen delivery systems such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles has also proven effective for eliciting protective immune responses. In the present work, we tested two immunization strategies with the goal of obtaining protection, in terms of lesion development and parasite load, against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. One strategy involved immunization with plasmid DNA encoding L. infantum chagasi KMP-11. Alternatively, mice were primed with PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the recombinant plasmid DNA and boosted using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with recombinant KMP-11. Both immunization strategies elicited detectable cellular immune responses with the presence of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; mice receiving the recombinant PLGA nanoparticle formulations also demonstrated anti-KMP-11 IgG1 and IgG2a. Mice were then challenged with L. braziliensis, in the presence of sand fly saliva. Lesion development was not inhibited following either immunization strategy. However, immunization with PLGA nanoparticles resulted in a more prominent reduction in parasite load at the infection site when compared with immunization using plasmid DNA alone. This effect was associated with a local increase in interferon-gamma and in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Both immunization strategies also resulted in a lower parasite load in the draining lymph nodes, albeit not significantly. Our results encourage the pursuit of immunization strategies employing nanobased delivery systems for vaccine development against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis infection.International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2012; 7:2115-27. · 3.46 Impact Factor