Cysteine proteinase type I, encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles induces substantial protection against Leishmania major infection in C57BL/6 mice

Molecular Immunology and Vaccine Research Laboratory, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
Parasite Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.14). 03/2011; 33(6):335-48. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2011.01289.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Appropriate adjuvant, proper antigen(s) and a suitable formulation are required to develop stable, safe and immunogenic vaccines. Leishmanial cysteine proteinase type I (CPB) is a promising vaccine candidate; nevertheless, it requires a delivery system to induce a potent immune response. Herein, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been applied for CPB [with and without C-terminal extension (CTE)] formulation to utilize as a vaccine against Leishmania major infection in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, SLN-CPB and SLN-CPB(-CTE) formulations were prepared from cetyl palmitate and cholesterol, using melt emulsification method. After intraperitoneal vaccination and subsequent L. major challenge, a strong antigen-specific T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response was induced compared to control groups. Lymph node cells from immunized mice displayed lower parasite burden, higher IFN-γ, IgG2a and lower IL-4 production, indicating that robust Th1 immune response had been induced. Our results revealed that CTE is not necessary for inducing protective responses against L. major infection as the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was significantly higher, whereas IgG1 responses were lower in the SLN-CPB(-CTE) vaccinated group, post-challenge. Thus, SLN-CPB(-CTE) was shown to induce specific Th1 immune responses to control L. major infection, through effective antigen delivery to the peritoneal antigen presenting cells.

14 Reads
  • Source
    • "In the case of leishmaniasis, immunization CpG and PLGA nanospheres loaded with autoclaved L. major was able to decrease L. major infection and this effect was associated with increased IFN-γ and decreased IL-4 production.21 Doroud et al showed that immunization with solid lipid nanoparticles loaded with plasmid DNA coding for Leishmania cysteine proteinase conferred protection against L. major,42 and was associated with increased IFN-γ levels before challenge and an elevated ratio of IFN-γ/IL-5 after challenge. In addition to the choice of antigen and experimental model, several variables such as particle chemistry, size, and surface charge, affect the ensuing immune response,43,44 and may explain the different outcomes observed in terms of immunity against leishmaniasis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vaccine development has been a priority in the fight against leishmaniases, which are vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa. Among the different immunization strategies employed to date is inoculation of plasmid DNA coding for parasite antigens, which has a demonstrated ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. In this sense, inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding Leishmania kinetoplasmid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) was able to confer protection against visceral leishmaniasis. However, recently the use of antigen delivery systems such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles has also proven effective for eliciting protective immune responses. In the present work, we tested two immunization strategies with the goal of obtaining protection, in terms of lesion development and parasite load, against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. One strategy involved immunization with plasmid DNA encoding L. infantum chagasi KMP-11. Alternatively, mice were primed with PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the recombinant plasmid DNA and boosted using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with recombinant KMP-11. Both immunization strategies elicited detectable cellular immune responses with the presence of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; mice receiving the recombinant PLGA nanoparticle formulations also demonstrated anti-KMP-11 IgG1 and IgG2a. Mice were then challenged with L. braziliensis, in the presence of sand fly saliva. Lesion development was not inhibited following either immunization strategy. However, immunization with PLGA nanoparticles resulted in a more prominent reduction in parasite load at the infection site when compared with immunization using plasmid DNA alone. This effect was associated with a local increase in interferon-gamma and in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Both immunization strategies also resulted in a lower parasite load in the draining lymph nodes, albeit not significantly. Our results encourage the pursuit of immunization strategies employing nanobased delivery systems for vaccine development against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis infection.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 04/2012; 7:2115-27. DOI:10.2147/IJN.S30093 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Earlier generations of Leishmania vaccines have reached the third-phase of clinical trials, however none of them have shown adequate efficacy due to lack of an appropriate adjuvant. In this study, cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLNs) were used to formulate three pDNAs encoding L. major cysteine proteinase type I (cpa), II (cpb) and III (cpc). BALB/c mice were immunized twice with a 3-week interval, with SLN-pcDNA-cpa/b/c, pcDNA-cpa/b/c, SLN, SLN-pcDNA and PBS. Footpad assessments, parasite burden, cytokine and antibody responses were evaluated. Mice vaccinated with SLN-pcDNA-cpa/b/c significantly (p<0.05) showed higher protection levels with specific Th1 immune response development compared to other groups. This is the first report demonstrating cSLNs as a nanoscale vehicle boosting immune response quality and quantity; in a designable trend. The nanomedical feature of this novel formulation can be applied for wide-spread use in genetic vaccination against leishmaniasis, which is currently managed only through relatively ineffectual therapeutic regimens.
    Journal of Controlled Release 04/2011; 153(2):154-62. DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2011.04.011 · 7.71 Impact Factor
  • Y Gao · M Zhang · L Chen · M Hou · M Ji · G Wu
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to observe the diverse functions of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in responses to specific schistosome antigens. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) from TLR2-deficient (TLR2(-/-)) or TLR4-deficient (TLR4(-/-)) mice were activated with soluble schistosomule antigen (SSA) or soluble egg antigen (SEA). TLR2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in B6 BMDCs following SEA stimulation. TLR2-deficient BMDCs showed enhanced MHCII expression following SSA and SEA stimulation. TLR2-deficient but not TLR4-deficient BMDC failed to produce IL-12p70 and IL-10 in response to schistosome antigens. TLR2-deficient BMDCs induced a stronger CD4(+) T cell proliferative response. IL-4 and IL-10 expression was inhibited in CD4(+) T cells primed with TLR2-deficient BMDCs, while enhanced in TLR4-deficient BMDCs-primed CD4(+) T cells. These results suggest that TLR2 is essential for the establishment of the DC production of IL-12p70 and IL-10.
    Cellular Immunology 10/2011; 272(2):242-50. DOI:10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.10.007 · 1.92 Impact Factor
Show more


14 Reads