Article

Cysteine proteinase type I, encapsulated in solid lipid nanoparticles induces substantial protection against Leishmania major infection in C57BL/6 mice.

Molecular Immunology and Vaccine Research Laboratory, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.
Parasite Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.21). 03/2011; 33(6):335-48. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.2011.01289.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Appropriate adjuvant, proper antigen(s) and a suitable formulation are required to develop stable, safe and immunogenic vaccines. Leishmanial cysteine proteinase type I (CPB) is a promising vaccine candidate; nevertheless, it requires a delivery system to induce a potent immune response. Herein, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) have been applied for CPB [with and without C-terminal extension (CTE)] formulation to utilize as a vaccine against Leishmania major infection in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, SLN-CPB and SLN-CPB(-CTE) formulations were prepared from cetyl palmitate and cholesterol, using melt emulsification method. After intraperitoneal vaccination and subsequent L. major challenge, a strong antigen-specific T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune response was induced compared to control groups. Lymph node cells from immunized mice displayed lower parasite burden, higher IFN-γ, IgG2a and lower IL-4 production, indicating that robust Th1 immune response had been induced. Our results revealed that CTE is not necessary for inducing protective responses against L. major infection as the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was significantly higher, whereas IgG1 responses were lower in the SLN-CPB(-CTE) vaccinated group, post-challenge. Thus, SLN-CPB(-CTE) was shown to induce specific Th1 immune responses to control L. major infection, through effective antigen delivery to the peritoneal antigen presenting cells.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
102 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanoscale objects, whether of biologic origin or synthetically created, are being developed into devices for a variety of bionanotechnology diagnostic and pharmaceutical applications. However, the potential immunotoxicity of these nanomaterials and mechanisms by which they may induce adverse reactions have not received sufficient attention. Nanomaterials, depending on their characteristics and compositions, can interact with the immune system in several ways and either enhance or suppress immune system function. Cytokines perform pleiotropic functions to mediate and regulate the immune response and are generally recognized as biomarkers of immunotoxicity. While the specificity and validity of certain cytokines as markers of adverse immune response has been established for chemicals, small and macromolecular drugs, research on their applicability for predicting and monitoring the immunotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials is still ongoing. The goal of this review is to provide guidelines as to important cytokines that can be utilized for evaluating the immunotoxicity of nanomaterials and to highlight the role of those cytokines in mediating adverse reactions, which is of particular importance for the clinical development of nanopharmaceuticals and other nanotechnology-based products. Importantly, the rational design of nanomaterials of low immunotoxicity will be discussed, focusing on synthetic nanodevices, with emphasis on both the nanoparticle-forming materials and the embedded cargoes.
    Chemical Society Reviews 04/2013; · 24.89 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease spread by an arthropod vector. It remains a significant health problem with an incidence of 0.2-0.4 million visceral leishmaniasis and 0.7-1.2 million cutaneous leishmaniasis cases each year. There are limitations associated with the current therapeutic regimens for leishmaniasis and the fact that after recovery from infection the host becomes immune to subsequent infection therefore, these factors force the feasibility of a vaccine for leishmaniasis. Publication of the genome sequence of Leishmania has paved a new way to understand the pathogenesis and host immunological status therefore providing a deep insight in the field of vaccine research. This review is an effort to study the antigenic targets in Leishmania to develop an anti-leishmanial vaccine.
    Expert Review of Vaccines 03/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We recently demonstrated that immunization with polyester poly (lactide-co-glycolide acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with the 11 kDa Leishmania vaccine candidate Kinetoplastid Membrane Protein 11 (KMP-11) significantly reduced parasite load in vivo. Presently, we explored the ability of the recombinant PLGA nanoparticles to stimulate innate responses in macrophages and the outcome of infection with L. braziliensis in vitro. Incubation of macrophages with KMP-11-loaded PLGA nanoparticles significantly decreased parasite load. In parallel, we observed augmented production of nitric oxide, superoxide, TNF-α and IL-6. An increased release of CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL1/KC was also observed, resulting in macrophage and neutrophil recruitment in vitro. Lastly, the incubation of macrophages with KMP-11-loaded PLGA nanoparticles triggered activation of caspase-1 and the secretion of IL-1β and IL-18, suggesting inflammasome participation. Inhibition of caspase-1 significantly increased the parasite load. We conclude that KMP-11-loaded PLGA nanoparticles promote the killing of intracellular Leishmania parasites through the induction of potent innate responses.
    Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 04/2013; · 6.93 Impact Factor