Conformational and thermodynamic impact of bulky aminofluorene adduction on simulated translesion DNA synthesis.
ABSTRACT We report a systematic spectroscopic investigation on the conformational evolution during primer extension of a bulky fluoroaminofluorene-modified dG adduct (FAF-dG) in chemically simulated translesion synthesis. FAF-dG was paired either with dC or dA (dC-match and dA-mismatch series, respectively). Dynamic (19)F NMR/CD results showed that the FAF-adduct exists in a syn/anti equilibrium and that its conformational characteristics are modulated by the identity of an inserted nucleotide at the lesion site and the extent of primer elongation. At the pre-insertion site, the adduct adopted preferentially a syn conformation where FAF stacked with preceding bases. Insertion of the correct nucleotide dC at the lesion site and subsequent elongation resulted in a gradual transition to the anti conformation. By contrast, the syn conformer was persistent along with primer extension in the dA-mismatch series. In the dC-match series, FAF-induced thermal (T(m)) and thermodynamic (-ΔG°(37 °C)) stabilities were significantly reduced relative to those of the controls. However, the corresponding T(m) and -ΔG°(37 °C) values were increased in the FAF-modified mismatched dA series. The lesion impact persisted up to three 5'-nucleotides from the lesion. Occupation of the minor groove of the W-conformer with the bulky carcinogenic fluorene moiety not only would limit the DNA mobility but also would impose a serious difficulty for the active site of a polymerase throughout the replication process. Our spectroscopic results are consistent with reported data on AF, which showed dramatic (~10(4)-fold) differences in the nucleotide insertion rates between the dC-match and dA-mismatch series. The results emphasize the importance of adduct-induced steric constraints for determining the replication fidelity of a polymerase.
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ABSTRACT: The DNA sequence effect is an important structural factor for determining the extent and nature of carcinogen-induced mutational and repair outcomes. In this study, we used two 16-mer template sequences, TG*A [d(5'-CTTCTTG*ACCTCATTC-3')] and CG*A [d(5'-CTTCTCG*ACCTCATTC-3')], to study the impact of the 5'-flanking nucleotide (T vs C) on aminofluorene (AF)-induced stacked (S)/major groove (B)/wedge (W) conformational heterogeneity during a simulated translesion synthesis. In addition, we probed the sequence effect on nucleotide insertion efficiencies catalyzed by the Klenow fragment (exonuclease-deficient) of DNA polymerase I. Our (19)F NMR/ICD/DSC results showed that AF in the CG*A duplex sequence adopts a greater population of S-conformer than the TG*A sequence. We found that the S conformer of CG*A thermodynamically favors insertion of A over C at the lesion site (n). Significant stalling occurred at both the prelesion (n - 1) and lesion (n) sites; however, the effect was more persistent for the S conformer of CG*A than TG*A at the lesion site (n). Kinetics show that relative nucleotide insertion frequencies (f(ins)) were greater for TG*A than the S conformer of CG*A for either dCTP or dATP at the lesion site (n), and the insertion rate was significantly reduced at immediate upstream base pairs (n, n + 1). Taken together, the results provide insight into how the mutagenic AF could exhibit an S/B/W equilibrium in the active site of a polymerase, causing different mutations. This work represents a novel structure-function relationship in which adduct structure is directly linked to nucleotide insertion efficiency in a conformation-specific manner during translesion DNA synthesis.Biochemistry 03/2012; 51(9):1983-95. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 2-Acetylaminofluorene (AAF) is a prototype arylamine carcinogen that forms C8-substituted dG-AAF and dG-AF as the major DNA lesions. The bulky N-acetylated dG-AAF lesion can induce various frameshift mutations depending on the base sequence around the lesion. We hypothesized that the thermodynamic stability of bulged-out slipped mutagenic intermediates (SMIs) is directly related to deletion mutations. The objective of the present study was to probe the structural/conformational basis of various dG-AAF-induced SMIs formed during a translesion synthesis. We performed spectroscopic, thermodynamic, and molecular dynamics studies of several AAF-modified 16-mer model DNA duplexes, including fully paired and -1, -2, and -3 deletion duplexes of the 5'-CTCTCGATG[FAAF]CCATCAC-3' sequence and an additional -1 deletion duplex of the 5'-CTCTCGGCG[FAAF]CCATCAC-3' NarI sequence. Modified deletion duplexes existed in a mixture of external B and stacked S conformers, with the population of the S conformer being 'GC'-1 (73%) > 'AT' -1 (72%) > full (60%) > -2 (55%) > -3 (37%). Thermodynamic stability was in the order of -1 deletion > -2 deletion > fully paired > -3 deletion duplexes. These results indicate that the stacked S-type conformer of SMIs are thermodynamically more stable than the conformationally flexible external B conformer. Results from the molecular dynamics simulations indicate perturbation of base stacking dominate the relative stability along with contributions from bending, duplex dynamics, solvation effects that are important in specific cases. Taken together, these results support a hypothesis that the conformational and thermodynamic stabilities of the SMIs are critical determinants for the induction of frameshift mutations.Chemical Research in Toxicology 05/2013; · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The active site conformation of the mutagenic fluoroaminofluorene-deoxyguanine adduct [dG-FAF, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-7-fluoro-2-aminofluorene] have been investigated in the presence of Klenow fragment of E. coli DNA polymerase I (Kfexo-) and DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) using 19F NMR, insertion assay, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). In a single nucleotide gap, the dG-FAF adduct adopts both a major-groove oriented and base displaced stacked conformation and this heterogeneity is retained upon binding pol beta. Addition of a non-hydrolysable 2'-deoxy-cytosine-5-[(a,b)-methyleno]triphosphate (dCMPcPP) nucleotide analog to the binary complex results in an increase of the major groove conformation of the adduct at the expense of the stacked conformation. Similar results were obtained with addition of an incorrect dAMPcPP analog but with formation of the minor groove binding conformer. In contrast, dG-FAF adduct at the replication fork for the Kfexo- complex adopts a mix of the major and minor groove conformers with minimal effect upon addition of non-hydrolysable nucleotides. For pol beta, the insertion of dCTP was preferred opposite the dG-FAF adduct in a single nucleotide gap assay consistent with 19F-NMR data. SPR binding kinetics revealed that pol beta binds tightly with DNA in the presence of correct dCTP but the adduct weakens binding with no nucleotide specificity. These results provide molecular insights into the DNA binding characteristics of FAF in the active site of DNA polymerases and the role of DNA structure and sequence on its coding potential.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor