Comparative volatile oil composition of four Ocimum species from northern India. Nat Prod Res

Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP, CSIR), Research Centre, Pantnagar 263 149, Uttarakhand, India.
Natural product research (Impact Factor: 0.92). 03/2011; 25(6):569-75. DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2010.482936
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya', Ocimum sanctum L. cvs. 'Green' (CIM-Ayu) and 'Purple', Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke have been studied by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phenylpropanoids (65.2-77.6%) constituted the major proportion of the essential oil compositions of O. sanctum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes (72.7%) constituted the major proportion of the oil composition of O. kilimandscharicum. The essential oil compositions of cvs. 'Green' and 'Purple' of O. sanctum were almost the same, and both cultivars were dominated by eugenol (67.4% and 72.8%), β-elemene (11.0% and 10.9%), β-caryophyllene (7.3% and 8.4%) and germacrene D (2.4% and 2.2%), whilst the major components in O. basilicum cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya' were methyl chavicol (68.0% and 64.9%) and linalool (21.9% and 25.6%), along with bicyclogermacrene (2.0% and 0.7%) and α-terpineol (1.2% and 0.1%). Eugenol (77.2%), 1,8-cineole (7.6%), germacrene D (2.7%) and β-caryophyllene (1.7%) were identified as the major constituents of O. gratissimum. On the contrary, the essential oil from O. kilimandscharicum was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (95.8%), represented by camphor (64.9%), limonene (8.7%), camphene (6.4%) and (E)-β-ocimene (3.0%).

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    • "O. canum was a subject of extensive investigation in many previous communications; camphor (Xaasan et al., 1981; Chagonda et al., 2000; Tonzibo et al., 2008), 1,8-cineole (Tchoumbougnang et al., 2006; Hassane et al., 2011), linalool (Yayi et al., 2001), terpinen-4-ol (Yayi et al., 2001), citral (Bunrathep et al., 2007), anisole and methyl-(E)-cinnamate (Vieira and Simon, 2006). Similarly, O. kilimandscharicum has been reported with high camphor proportion from various locations (Garg et al., 2004; Kumar et al., 2009; Runyoro et al., 2010; Padalia and Verma, 2011). Till date, no camphor enantiomer separation has been reported from Ocimum species. "
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    ABSTRACT: Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of two Ocimum species (O. canum and O. kilimandscharicum) wasinvestigated using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques on DB-5(5% diphenyl-95% dimethylpolysiloxane) and �-cyclodextrin (6-tertiarybutyldimethylsiliyl-2,3-diethyl-�-cyclodextrin) capillary columns. Essential oil extracted from O. canum contained camphor, limonene,camphene and myrtenol as most abundant constituents among monoterpenoids, whereas �-selinene,�-selinene, maaliol and �-caryophyllene were identified under sesquiterpenoids class. On contrary, twofolds higher camphor was recorded in O. kilimandscharicum. Maaliol (6.4%) was characterized in O. canumfor the first time with the help of extensive 1D and 2D-NMR experiments. Therefore, maaliol can beconsidered as a marker constituent to differentiate both the camphor rich oils. Further, when the oils weresubjected to chiral analysis on �-cyclodextrin column; a high enantiomeric excess for (1R)-(+)-camphorwas recorded. This revealed a close relationship between these two species in terms of biosynthesisof single enantiomer. Apart from analysis, oils were assessed for antifungal activity against Rhizoctoniasolani and Choanephora cucurbitarum. O. kilimandscharicum exhibited a complete inhibition against R.solani and C. cucurbitarum while O. canum was only effective against R. solani.
    Industrial Crops and Products 08/2013; 50:333-337. DOI:10.1016/j.indcrop.2013.08.009 · 2.84 Impact Factor
    • "It cures ulcer in the mouth and is known to help inhibit growth of oral cancer caused due to chewing tobacco, etc.[13] Some of the main chemical constituents of Tulsi are: Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, eugenol, carvacrol, linalool, β-caryophyllene (about 8%), β-elemene (c. 11.0%), and germacrene D (about 2%).[14] "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH and also to assess the degree of tongue coating in healthy subjects before and after chewing herbal leaves (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf). A double-blind, randomized, concurrent, parallel-group study was conducted among 60 volunteer subjects, who were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf) and were asked to chew five to six fresh leaves of the respective plants twice daily for 7 days. Salivary and tongue coating pH were measured by a digital pH meter and color pH indicators. Data were analyzed statistically using repeated measure analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Mean salivary pH values showed an increase immediately and 30 min after chewing the herbal leaves. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed between mint and curry leaf groups immediately after chewing and between tulsi and curry leaf groups (P < 0.05) 30 min after chewing the leaves. Tongue coating pH showed an increase toward alkalinity in all the groups. The assessment of tongue coating showed an increase in scores among tulsi and curry leaf groups, but this difference was not statistically significant. Chewing traditional medicinal plant leaves can be considered as safe, effective, and economical alternate options for maintaining good oral health.
    10/2012; 32(2):69-75. DOI:10.4103/0257-7941.118531
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    • "Ocimum gratissimum; OK: Ocimum kilimandscharicum; S/M: spring-summer cropping season; R/A: rain-autumn cropping season; [18] "
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    ABSTRACT: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke grown in sub-tropical region of northern India during spring/summer cropping season were investigated. The essential oil content in the fresh herb of O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum was 0.45% and 0.48%, respectively. The essential oils of both Ocimum species was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major components of the O. gratissimum essential oil were eugenol (63.7%), (Z)-β-ocimene (19.6%), and germacrene D (7.3%), while the principal components identified in the O. kilimandscharicum essential oil were camphor (63.4%), limonene (7.9%), camphene (5.8%), and γ-terpinene (4.7%). These oils were evaluated against four pathogenic bacteria. Interestingly, both oils showed good activity against tested strains. The activity index was noticed higher for O. gratissimum than O. kilimandscharicum essential oil.
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