The hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya', Ocimum sanctum L. cvs. 'Green' (CIM-Ayu) and 'Purple', Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke have been studied by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phenylpropanoids (65.2-77.6%) constituted the major proportion of the essential oil compositions of O. sanctum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes (72.7%) constituted the major proportion of the oil composition of O. kilimandscharicum. The essential oil compositions of cvs. 'Green' and 'Purple' of O. sanctum were almost the same, and both cultivars were dominated by eugenol (67.4% and 72.8%), β-elemene (11.0% and 10.9%), β-caryophyllene (7.3% and 8.4%) and germacrene D (2.4% and 2.2%), whilst the major components in O. basilicum cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya' were methyl chavicol (68.0% and 64.9%) and linalool (21.9% and 25.6%), along with bicyclogermacrene (2.0% and 0.7%) and α-terpineol (1.2% and 0.1%). Eugenol (77.2%), 1,8-cineole (7.6%), germacrene D (2.7%) and β-caryophyllene (1.7%) were identified as the major constituents of O. gratissimum. On the contrary, the essential oil from O. kilimandscharicum was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (95.8%), represented by camphor (64.9%), limonene (8.7%), camphene (6.4%) and (E)-β-ocimene (3.0%).
"O. canum was a subject of extensive investigation in many previous communications; camphor (Xaasan et al., 1981; Chagonda et al., 2000; Tonzibo et al., 2008), 1,8-cineole (Tchoumbougnang et al., 2006; Hassane et al., 2011), linalool (Yayi et al., 2001), terpinen-4-ol (Yayi et al., 2001), citral (Bunrathep et al., 2007), anisole and methyl-(E)-cinnamate (Vieira and Simon, 2006). Similarly, O. kilimandscharicum has been reported with high camphor proportion from various locations (Garg et al., 2004; Kumar et al., 2009; Runyoro et al., 2010; Padalia and Verma, 2011). Till date, no camphor enantiomer separation has been reported from Ocimum species. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential oil extracted from aerial parts of two Ocimum species (O. canum and O. kilimandscharicum) wasinvestigated using gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry techniques on DB-5(5% diphenyl-95% dimethylpolysiloxane) and �-cyclodextrin (6-tertiarybutyldimethylsiliyl-2,3-diethyl-�-cyclodextrin) capillary columns. Essential oil extracted from O. canum contained camphor, limonene,camphene and myrtenol as most abundant constituents among monoterpenoids, whereas �-selinene,�-selinene, maaliol and �-caryophyllene were identified under sesquiterpenoids class. On contrary, twofolds higher camphor was recorded in O. kilimandscharicum. Maaliol (6.4%) was characterized in O. canumfor the first time with the help of extensive 1D and 2D-NMR experiments. Therefore, maaliol can beconsidered as a marker constituent to differentiate both the camphor rich oils. Further, when the oils weresubjected to chiral analysis on �-cyclodextrin column; a high enantiomeric excess for (1R)-(+)-camphorwas recorded. This revealed a close relationship between these two species in terms of biosynthesisof single enantiomer. Apart from analysis, oils were assessed for antifungal activity against Rhizoctoniasolani and Choanephora cucurbitarum. O. kilimandscharicum exhibited a complete inhibition against R.solani and C. cucurbitarum while O. canum was only effective against R. solani.
"GC/MS profile of O. tenuiflorum essential oil showing separation of aroma compounds; a Eugenol and b Methyl eugenol rich chemotypes Genet Resour Crop Evol (2013) 60:1727–1735 1731 high eugenol content were IC583281 (60.2 %), IC583285 (56.9 %) and IC583322(55.5 %), while three accessions identified as methyl eugenol rich were IC583279 (82.9 %), IC583284 (80 %) and IC583278 (70.3 %). The oil composition of holy basil germplasm resembled to the earlier reports from India (Maheshwari et al. 1987; Padalia and Verma 2011). Latter reported that essential oil compositions of cvs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (“Holy Basil”/“Tulsi”) is an indigenous Ayurvedic medicinal plant of India, widely distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions. Plant is well known for its enormous therapeutic activities and prevention against diseases. In the present study, thirty-two accessions of O. tenuiflorum germplasm collected from different regions of Northern India were evaluated for their essential oil content and composition. Essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by GC and GC/MS for aroma compounds. Essential oil content in O. tenuiflorum germplasm showed wide range of variation from 0.13 to 0.45 % on FWB. GC and GC/MS profile of O. tenuiflorum oil showed phenylpropanoids, mainly eugenol constituted the major proportion of essential oil. The range of major chemical constituents identified were eugenol (1.94–60.20 %), methyl eugenol (0.87–82.98 %), β-caryophyllene (4.13–44.60 %), β-elemene (0.76–32.41 %). Eugenol and methyl eugenol rich two chemotypes were identified in O. tenuiflorum germplasm. The accessions, IC583281, IC583285 and IC583322 were found to contain high eugenol content (>55 %), while three accessions IC583279, IC583284 and IC583278 were found to possess high methyl eugenol content (>70 %). Eugenol has been reported to be largely responsible for the therapeutic potentials of tulsi, while methyl eugenol is a high value aroma chemical used as flavouring agent. The results suggest holy basil have a potential as a new essential oil crops and can provide oil yields and composition typical for the respective species.
"It cures ulcer in the mouth and is known to help inhibit growth of oral cancer caused due to chewing tobacco, etc. Some of the main chemical constituents of Tulsi are: Oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, rosmarinic acid, eugenol, carvacrol, linalool, β-caryophyllene (about 8%), β-elemene (c. 11.0%), and germacrene D (about 2%). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to evaluate saliva and tongue coating pH and also to assess the degree of tongue coating in healthy subjects before and after chewing herbal leaves (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf).
A double-blind, randomized, concurrent, parallel-group study was conducted among 60 volunteer subjects, who were randomly assigned into three groups of 20 each (tulsi, mint, and curry leaf) and were asked to chew five to six fresh leaves of the respective plants twice daily for 7 days. Salivary and tongue coating pH were measured by a digital pH meter and color pH indicators. Data were analyzed statistically using repeated measure analysis of variance and Student's t-test.
Mean salivary pH values showed an increase immediately and 30 min after chewing the herbal leaves. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed between mint and curry leaf groups immediately after chewing and between tulsi and curry leaf groups (P < 0.05) 30 min after chewing the leaves. Tongue coating pH showed an increase toward alkalinity in all the groups. The assessment of tongue coating showed an increase in scores among tulsi and curry leaf groups, but this difference was not statistically significant.
Chewing traditional medicinal plant leaves can be considered as safe, effective, and economical alternate options for maintaining good oral health.
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