Comparative volatile oil composition of four Ocimum species from northern India
ABSTRACT The hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya', Ocimum sanctum L. cvs. 'Green' (CIM-Ayu) and 'Purple', Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke have been studied by capillary gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Phenylpropanoids (65.2-77.6%) constituted the major proportion of the essential oil compositions of O. sanctum, O. basilicum and O. gratissimum, whilst oxygenated monoterpenes (72.7%) constituted the major proportion of the oil composition of O. kilimandscharicum. The essential oil compositions of cvs. 'Green' and 'Purple' of O. sanctum were almost the same, and both cultivars were dominated by eugenol (67.4% and 72.8%), β-elemene (11.0% and 10.9%), β-caryophyllene (7.3% and 8.4%) and germacrene D (2.4% and 2.2%), whilst the major components in O. basilicum cvs. 'Vikarsudha' and 'CIM-Soumya' were methyl chavicol (68.0% and 64.9%) and linalool (21.9% and 25.6%), along with bicyclogermacrene (2.0% and 0.7%) and α-terpineol (1.2% and 0.1%). Eugenol (77.2%), 1,8-cineole (7.6%), germacrene D (2.7%) and β-caryophyllene (1.7%) were identified as the major constituents of O. gratissimum. On the contrary, the essential oil from O. kilimandscharicum was mainly dominated by monoterpenoids (95.8%), represented by camphor (64.9%), limonene (8.7%), camphene (6.4%) and (E)-β-ocimene (3.0%).
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ABSTRACT: Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum L. and Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke grown in sub-tropical region of northern India during spring/summer cropping season were investigated. The essential oil content in the fresh herb of O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum was 0.45% and 0.48%, respectively. The essential oils of both Ocimum species was analyzed by capillary gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major components of the O. gratissimum essential oil were eugenol (63.7%), (Z)-β-ocimene (19.6%), and germacrene D (7.3%), while the principal components identified in the O. kilimandscharicum essential oil were camphor (63.4%), limonene (7.9%), camphene (5.8%), and γ-terpinene (4.7%). These oils were evaluated against four pathogenic bacteria. Interestingly, both oils showed good activity against tested strains. The activity index was noticed higher for O. gratissimum than O. kilimandscharicum essential oil.
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ABSTRACT: Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed aromatic herbs used in ethnomedicinal management of a range of inflammatory disorders. In the present work we evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory effects of the volatile constituents extracted from the fresh leaves of these plant species. Fresh leaves of the plants were subjected to hydro distillation to obtain the volatile oils OBV and OGV from O. basilicum and O. gratissimum respectively. The fresh leaves were also extracted with n-hexane to obtain OBHE and OGHE respectively. OBV, OGV, OBHE and OGHE were screened for anti-inflammatory effect using xylene-induced ear edema as a model of inflammation. Their chemical constituents were also analysed using GC/MS apparatus. At 50 µg/ear OBV, OGV, OBHE and OGHE exhibited significant (P<0.05) topical anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibitions of 50.0, 63.3, 62.7 and 80 % respectively. The effects were comparable (P<0.05) with that of 100 µg/ear hydrocortisone (% edema inhibition of 54.8). 11 of the compounds from OGV are monoterpenes while 4 are sesquiterpenes. 8 of the compounds identified in OGHE are oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, 5 are sesquiterpenes, and the others are long chain carboxylic acid, eugenol and phthalate derivatives. OGV and OGHE contain linalool, 1-terpinen-4-ol, alpha-caryophylene and trans longipinocarveol in common. Compounds identified in OBV include 2 monoterpenes, 7 oxygenated monoterpene derivatives, 2 sesquiterppenes, a long chain monocarboxylic acid and a triterpene, alpha-amyrin. OBV and OBHE contain eugenol acetate in common. Some of these identified volatile constituents may be contributing to the observed anti-inflammatory effects. INTRODUCTION: Ocimum basilicum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. (Lamiaceae) are widely distributed aromatic herbs 1 .
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ABSTRACT: The essential oil contents and compositions of the leaves and inflorescences of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemotypes), Ocimum kilimandscharicum Guerke (two chemotypes), Ocimum americanum L. and Ocimum grattisimum L. were analyzed and compared using gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Essential oil content on a fresh weight basis varied from 0.60% to 1.00% in leaves and from 0.28% to 0.85% in inflorescences of different Ocimum species/chemotypes. A total of eighty-six components, constituting 96.4–99.2% of the leaf oil and 88.0–99.3% of inflorescence oil, were identified. Phenylpropanoids (methyl chavicol and eugenol) and monoterpenoids (citral, camphor, linalool, 1,8-cineole, limonene and (Z)-β-ocimene) were among the major constituents identified in their essential oils. Chromatographic results and subsequent hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the distribution of components, both qualitatively and quantitatively, varied considerably in leaf and inflorescence essential oils of the studied Ocimum species and their chemotypes.Journal of Essential Oil Research 08/2014; 26(6). DOI:10.1080/10412905.2014.942808 · 0.82 Impact Factor