Chocolate HILIC phases: development and characterization of novel saccharide-based stationary phases by applying non-enzymatic browning (Maillard reaction) on amino-modified silica surfaces.
ABSTRACT Novel saccharide-based stationary phases were developed by applying non-enzymatic browning (Maillard Reaction) on aminopropyl silica material. During this process, the reducing sugars glucose, lactose, maltose, and cellobiose served as "ligand primers". The reaction cascade using cellobiose resulted in an efficient chromatographic material which further served as our model Chocolate HILIC column. (Chocolate refers to the fact that these phases are brownish.) In this way, an amine backbone was introduced to facilitate convenient manipulation of selectivity by additional attractive or repulsive ionic solute-ligand interactions in addition to the typical HILIC retention mechanism. In total, six different test sets and five different mobile phase compositions were investigated, allowing a comprehensive evaluation of the new polar column. It became evident that, besides the so-called HILIC retention mechanism based on partition phenomena, additional adsorption mechanisms, including ionic interactions, take place. Thus, the new column is another example of a HILIC-type column characterized by mixed-modal retention increments. The glucose-modified materials exhibited the relative highest overall hydrophobicity of all grafted Chocolate HILIC columns which enabled retention of lipophilic analytes with high water content mobile phases.