Campylobacter jejuni has been implicated in the pathogenesis of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) in humans, effects which may be because of cytolethal distending toxin (CDT). In this study, we characterized both acute and chronic-phase histological changes of the small bowel in rats exposed to wild-type C. jejuni 81-176, or a strain that does not produce CDT, by using a validated rat model of PI-IBS.
Sprague-Dawley rats were given 1.0 × 10(8) CFU of either wild-type C. jejuni 81-176 (C+, PI/C+) or the CDT-negative strain (CDT-), or vehicle alone (Control). Acute-phase rats (C+, CDT-) were euthanized on days 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32. Chronic-phase rats (PI/C+, Control) were euthanized 3 months after clearing the initial infection. Segments of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were resected and the contents plated for C. jejuni culture, and tissue sections were stained for histology.
We observed preferential infection of the ileum and jejunum by Campylobacter jejuni. Compared with controls, epithelial cell basal membrane ballooning, villous tip disruption, and reduced villous-to-crypt ratios were observed for both C+ and CDT- rats. Villous widening, the only result significantly different in C+ vs. CDT- rats, was greatest at day 4 (134.1 ± 21.12 μm vs. 109.9 ± 10.6 μm for CDT-, P < 0.01). Little or no cellular inflammatory changes were seen during acute C. jejuni infection. Three months after clearing the initial infection, no histological changes remained.
Significant histological changes, with the absence of inflammatory cells, are seen in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of rats during acute infection with C. jejuni. These changes occurred irrespective of the presence or absence of the CDT toxin.
"Our current study supports a longer colonization time among rats infected with wildtype C. jejuni vs CDT- C. jejuni. However, in a recently published study of acute histological changes in rats exposed to wildtype and CDT- C. jejuni, there very few histological differences during the acute infection during first 4 weeks after gavage.25 Both groups had significant disturbances including epithelial cell ballooning, villous blunting and villous tip disruption in the absence of cellular inflammation; these changes resolved by 3 months post-infection. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacter jejuni infection is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, which is a trigger for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) is expressed by enteric pathogens that cause PI-IBS. We used a rat model of PI-IBS to investigate the role of CDT in long-term altered stool form and bowel phenotypes.
Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with wildtype C. jejuni (C+), a C. jejunicdtB knockout (CDT-) or saline vehicle (controls). Four months after gavage, stool from 3 consecutive days was assessed for stool form and percent wet weight. Rectal tissue was analyzed for intraepithelial lymphocytes, and small intestinal tissue was stained with anti-c-kit for deep muscular plexus interstitial cells of Cajal (DMP-ICC).
All 3 groups showed similar colonization and clearance parameters. Average 3-day stool dry weights were similar in all 3 groups, but day-to-day variability in stool form and stool dry weight were significantly different in the C+ group vs both controls (P < 0.01) and the CDT- roup (P < 0.01), but were not different in the CDT- vs controls. Similarly, rectal lymphocytes were significantly higher after C. jejuni (C+) infection vs both controls (P < 0.01) and CDT-exposed rats (P < 0.05). The counts in the latter 2 groups were not significantly different. Finally, c-kit staining revealed that DMP-ICC were reduced only in rats exposed to wildtype C. jejuni.
In this rat model of PI-IBS, CDT appears to play a role in the development of chronic altered bowel patterns, mild chronic rectal inflammation and reduction in DMP-ICC.
Journal of neurogastroenterology and motility 10/2012; 18(4):434-42. DOI:10.5056/jnm.2012.18.4.434 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Campylobacter is the most common bacterial food-borne pathogen worldwide. Poultry and specifically chicken and raw chicken meat is the main source for human Campylobacter infection. Whilst being colonized by Campylobacter spp. chicken in contrast to human, do scarcely develop pathological lesions. The immune mechanisms controlling Campylobacter colonization and infection in chickens are still not clear. Previous studies and our investigations indicate that the ability to colonize the chicken varies significantly not only between Campylobacter strains but also depending on the original source of the infecting isolate. The data provides circumstantial evidence that early immune mechanisms in the gut may play an important role in the fate of Campylobacter in the host.
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 03/2012; 2(1):61-65. DOI:10.1556/EuJMI.2.2012.1.9
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is diagnosed through clinical criteria after excluding "organic" conditions, and can be precipitated by acute gastroenteritis. Cytolethal distending toxin B (CdtB) is produced by bacteria that cause acute gastroenteritis, and a post-infectious animal model demonstrates that host antibodies to CdtB cross-react with vinculin in the host gut, producing an IBS-like phenotype. Therefore, we assessed circulating anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies as biomarkers for D-IBS in human subjects. Subjects with D-IBS based on Rome criteria (n=2375) were recruited from a large-scale multicenter clinical trial for D-IBS (TARGET 3). Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n=142), subjects with celiac disease (n=121), and healthy controls (n=43) were obtained for comparison. Subjects with IBD and celiac disease were recruited based on the presence of intestinal complaints and histologic confirmation of chronic inflammatory changes in the colon or small intestine. Subjects with celiac disease were also required to have an elevated tTG and biopsy. All subjects were aged between 18 and 65 years. Plasma levels of anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies were determined by ELISA, and compared between groups. Anti-CdtB titers were significantly higher in D-IBS subjects compared to IBD, healthy controls and celiac disease (P<0.001). Anti-vinculin titers were also significantly higher in IBS (P<0.001) compared to the other groups. The area-under-the-receiver operating curves (AUCs) were 0.81 and 0.62 for diagnosis of D-IBS against IBD for anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin, respectively. Both tests were less specific in differentiating IBS from celiac disease. Optimization demonstrated that for anti-CdtB (optical density≥2.80) the specificity, sensitivity and likelihood ratio were 91.6%, 43.7 and 5.2, respectively, and for anti-vinculin (OD≥1.68) were 83.8%, 32.6 and 2.0, respectively. These results confirm that anti-CdtB and anti-vinculin antibodies are elevated in D-IBS compared to non-IBS subjects. These biomarkers may be especially helpful in distinguishing D-IBS from IBD in the workup of chronic diarrhea.
PLoS ONE 05/2015; 10(5):e0126438. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0126438 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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