Article

A protective role for complement C3 protein during pandemic 2009 H1N1 and H5N1 influenza A virus infection.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 03/2011; 6(3):e17377. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017377
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza infections are associated with enhanced inflammatory and cytokine responses, severe lung damage, and an overall dysregulation of innate immunity. C3, a member of the complement system of serum proteins, is a major component of the innate immune and inflammatory responses. However, the role of this protein in the pathogenesis of H5N1 infection is unknown. Here we demonstrate that H5N1 influenza virus infected mice had increased levels of C5a and C3 activation byproducts as compared to mice infected with either seasonal or pandemic 2009 H1N1 influenza viruses. We hypothesized that the increased complement was associated with the enhanced disease associated with the H5N1 infection. However, studies in knockout mice demonstrated that C3 was required for protection from influenza infection, proper viral clearance, and associated with changes in cellular infiltration. These studies suggest that although the levels of complement activation may differ depending on the influenza virus subtype, complement is an important host defense mechanism.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
143 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need for universal influenza vaccines that can control emerging pandemic influenza virus threats without the need to generate new vaccines for each strain. Neutralizing Abs to the influenza virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein are effective at controlling influenza infection but generally target highly variable regions. Abs that can mediate other functions, such as killing influenza-infected cells and activating innate immune responses (termed "Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [ADCC]-mediating Abs"), may assist in protective immunity to influenza. ADCC-mediating Abs can target more conserved regions of influenza virus proteins and recognize a broader array of influenza strains. We review recent research on influenza-specific ADCC Abs and their potential role in improved influenza-vaccination strategies.
    The Journal of Immunology 07/2014; 193(2):469-475. · 5.36 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host.
    Ecology and Evolution 12/2014; · 1.66 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Infectious Diseases 06/2014; · 5.78 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
4 Downloads
Available from
Jul 25, 2014