Influence of Affinity and Antigen Internalization on the Uptake and Penetration of Anti-HER2 Antibodies in Solid Tumors

Developmental Therapeutics Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 9.33). 03/2011; 71(6):2250-9. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-2277
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Antibody drugs are widely used in cancer therapy, but conditions to maximize tumor penetration and efficacy have yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the impact of antibody binding affinity on tumor targeting and penetration with affinity variants that recognize the same epitope. Specifically, we compared four derivatives of the C6.5 monoclonal antibody (mAb), which recognizes the same HER2 epitope (monovalent K(D) values ranging from 270 to 0.56 nmol/L). Moderate affinity was associated with the highest tumor accumulation at 24 and 120 hours after intravenous injection, whereas high affinity was found to produce the lowest tumor accumulation. Highest affinity mAbs were confined to the perivascular space of tumors with an average penetration of 20.4 ± 7.5 μm from tumor blood vessels. Conversely, lowest affinity mAbs exhibited a broader distribution pattern with an average penetration of 84.8 ± 12.8 μm. In vitro internalization assays revealed that antibody internalization and catabolism generally increased with affinity, plateauing once the rate of HER2 internalization exceeded the rate of antibody dissociation. Effects of internalization and catabolism on tumor targeting were further examined using antibodies of moderate (C6.5) or high-affinity (trastuzumab), labeled with residualizing ((111)In-labeled) or nonresidualizing ((125)I-labeled) radioisotopes. Significant amounts of antibody of both affinities were degraded by tumors in vivo. Furthermore, moderate- to high-affinity mAbs targeting the same HER2 epitope with monovalent affinity above 23 nmol/L had equal tumor accumulation of residualizing radiolabel over 120 hours. Results indicated equal tumor exposure, suggesting that mAb penetration and retention in tumors reflected affinity-based differences in tumor catabolism. Together, these results suggest that high-density, rapidly internalizing antigens subject high-affinity antibodies to greater internalization and degradation, thereby limiting their penetration of tumors. In contrast, lower-affinity antibodies penetrate tumors more effectively when rates of antibody-antigen dissociation are higher than those of antigen internalization. Together, our findings offer insights into how to optimize the ability of therapeutic antibodies to penetrate tumors.

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Available from: Gregory P Adams, Sep 29, 2015
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    • "This is because very high affinity interactions between antibodies and tumour antigens are predicted to impair efficient tumour penetration of the monoclonal antibodies and thus diminish effective in vivo targeting [28-32]. Similar findings were recently reported by Rudnick et al. [27], who studied the impact of affinity on the in vivo tumour-targeting properties of anti-HER2 antibodies. They found that the highest affinity mAbs exhibited an average penetration of 20.4 ± 7.5 μm from tumour blood vessels. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The ability of recombinant antibodies to adequately penetrate into tumours is a key factor in achieving therapeutic effect; however, the behaviour of antibodies at a cellular level in tumours is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate those factors that influence the macroscopic and microscopic intratumoural distribution of an IgG1-humanized antibody, huA33, in colorectal tumours. Methods Twelve patients were infused with radiolabelled huA33 at 7 days prior to elective surgery for colorectal carcinoma. Macroscopic huA33 uptake was determined by both gamma well counter and autoradiography measurements of the resected tumour specimens. Microscopic uptake was then quantitated at a cellular level and compared to vascular penetrance. The impact of variation in tumour antigen (GPA33) expression, tumour size, specimen type (primary vs metastatic), presence of macroscopic necrosis, and tumour vasculature on huA33 uptake were examined. Results The I-huA33 uptake in whole tumour sections was (mean ± SD) 5.13 ± 2.71 × 10−3% injected dose per gram (ID/g). GPA33 was expressed in all viable tumour cells, and huA33 uptake was excellent regardless of tumour size and specimen type. In tumours with macroscopically evident central necrosis (n = 5), huA33 uptake in tumour necrotic centres was lower than in viable peripheries (0.606 ± 0.493 vs 2.98 ± 2.17 × 10−3%ID, p = 0.06). However, when corrected for low cell viability in necrotic centres, uptake of huA33 at the cellular level was highly comparable to that in the more viable tumour periphery (7.10 ± 5.10 × 10−9 vs 3.82 ± 3.67 × 10−9%ID/cell, p = 0.4). In the five patients who exhibited macroscopic necrosis in their tumours, huA33 showed excellent tissue penetration, with a maximum penetration distance of 26 μm in peripheral tumour regions and 118 μm in central regions. No correlation was observed between 131I-huA33 uptake in tumour on a cellular basis and tumour vascularity. Conclusions In patients with colorectal carcinoma, monoclonal antibody huA33 effectively targets viable tumour cells in all cellular milieus examined, including effective penetration into necrotic tumour centres, a novel and therapeutically important finding.
    EJNMMI Research 05/2014; 4(1):22. DOI:10.1186/s13550-014-0022-x
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    • "To ascertain the purity and biological integrity of the radioconjugate, an immunoreactivity assay was conducted and the immunoreactive fraction at infinite LAT1 antigen excess was calculated as 0.79 ± 0.11. We examined the binding kinetics of [89Zr]DFO-Ab2 where surface bound [89Zr]DFO-Ab2 was internalized at 37 °C for various intervals up to 24 h as shown in Figure 2 [31]. Over-time, the surface-bound activity decreased as the internalized fraction increased. "
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    ABSTRACT: The L-type amino acid transporter-1 (LAT1, SLC7A5) is upregulated in a wide range of human cancers, positively correlated with the biological aggressiveness of tumors, and a promising target for both imaging and therapy. Radiolabeled amino acids such as O-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) that are transport substrates for system L amino acid transporters including LAT1 have met limited success for oncologic imaging outside of the brain, and thus new strategies are needed for imaging LAT1 in systemic cancers. Here, we describe the development and biological evaluation of a novel zirconium-89 labeled antibody, [(89)Zr]DFO-Ab2, targeting the extracellular domain of LAT1 in a preclinical model of colorectal cancer. This tracer demonstrated specificity for LAT1 in vitro and in vivo with excellent tumor imaging properties in mice with xenograft tumors. PET imaging studies showed high tumor uptake, with optimal tumor-to-non target contrast achieved at 7 days post administration. Biodistribution studies demonstrated tumor uptake of 10.5 ± 1.8 percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g) at 7 days with a tumor to muscle ratio of 13 to 1. In contrast, the peak tumor uptake of the radiolabeled amino acid [(18)F]FET was 4.4 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 30 min after injection with a tumor to muscle ratio of 1.4 to 1. Blocking studies with unlabeled anti-LAT1 antibody demonstrated a 55% reduction of [(89)Zr]DFO-Ab2 accumulation in the tumor at 7 days. These results are the first report of direct PET imaging of LAT1 and demonstrate the potential of immunoPET agents for imaging specific amino acid transporters.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e77476. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0077476 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Most studies examining affinity have been performed using antibodies but are expected to hold true for other targeting ligands. Both mathematical modeling and experimental studies have demonstrated that lower affinity antibodies experience better tissue distribution [67–69]. This “binding site barrier” was first described in a modeling study by Fujimori et al. and is based on the successful binding of a ligand to tumor cells near the site of entry into the tumor; this binding then impedes ligand distribution throughout the tumor [67]. "
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    ABSTRACT: One method for improving cancer treatment is the use of nanoparticle drugs functionalized with targeting ligands that recognize receptors expressed selectively by tumor cells. In theory such targeting ligands should specifically deliver the nanoparticle drug to the tumor, increasing drug concentration in the tumor and delivering the drug to its site of action within the tumor tissue. However, the leaky vasculature of tumors combined with a poor lymphatic system allows the passive accumulation, and subsequent retention, of nanosized materials in tumors. Furthermore, a large nanoparticle size may impede tumor penetration. As such, the role of active targeting in nanoparticle delivery is controversial, and it is difficult to predict how a targeted nanoparticle drug will behave in vivo. Here we report in vivo studies for αvβ6-specific H2009.1 peptide targeted liposomal doxorubicin, which increased liposomal delivery and toxicity to lung cancer cells in vitro. We systematically varied ligand affinity, ligand density, ligand stability, liposome dosage, and tumor models to assess the role of active targeting of liposomes to αvβ6. In direct contrast to the in vitro results, we demonstrate no difference in in vivo targeting or efficacy for H2009.1 tetrameric peptide liposomal doxorubicin, compared to control peptide and no peptide liposomes. Examining liposome accumulation and distribution within the tumor demonstrates that the liposome, and not the H2009.1 peptide, drives tumor accumulation, and that both targeted H2009.1 and untargeted liposomes remain in perivascular regions, with little tumor penetration. Thus H2009.1 targeted liposomes fail to improve drug efficacy because the liposome drug platform prevents the H2009.1 peptide from both actively targeting the tumor and binding to tumor cells throughout the tumor tissue. Therefore, using a high affinity and high specificity ligand targeting an over-expressed tumor biomarker does not guarantee enhanced efficacy of a liposomal drug. These results highlight the complexity of in vivo targeting.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72938. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072938 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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