Physical activity in U.S. adults. Compliance with the Physical Activity Guideline for Americans

Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58108-6050, USA.
American journal of preventive medicine (Impact Factor: 4.53). 04/2011; 40(4):454-61. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.016
Source: PubMed


To date, no study has objectively measured physical activity levels among U.S. adults according to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (PAGA).
The purpose of this study was to assess self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among U.S. adults according to the PAGA.
Using data from the NHANES 2005-2006, the PAGA were assessed using three physical activity calculations: moderate plus vigorous physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (MVPA); moderate plus two instances of vigorous physical activity ≥150 minutes/week (M2VPA); and time spent above 3 METs ≥500 MET-minutes/week (METPA). Self-reported physical activity included leisure, transportation, and household activities. Objective activity was measured using Actigraph accelerometers that were worn for 7 consecutive days. Analyses were conducted in 2009-2010.
U.S. adults reported 324.5 ± 18.6 minutes/week (M ± SE) of moderate physical activity and 73.6 ± 3.9 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity, although accelerometry estimates were 45.1 ± 4.6 minutes/week of moderate physical activity and 18.6 ± 6.6 minutes/week of vigorous physical activity. The proportion of adults meeting the PAGA according to M2VPA was 62.0% for self-report and 9.6% for accelerometry.
According to the NHANES 2005-2006, fewer than 10% of U.S. adults met the PAGA according to accelerometry. However, physical activity estimates vary substantially depending on whether self-reported or measured via accelerometer.

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    • "The importance of physical activity on health and disease prevention is unequivocal (Paffenbarger, Hyde, Wing, & Hsieh, 1986); however, few adults (approximately 10–40%) participate in sufficient amounts of physical activity (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2013; Tucker, Welk, & Beyler, 2011), particularly if they are obese (Davis, Hodges, & Gillham, 2006). The ability to monitor individual physical activity behaviour is positively associated with the volume of physical activity completed (Son, Kerstetter , Mowen, & Payne, 2009; Umstattd & Hallam, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Monitoring physical activity is important to better individualise health and fitness benefits. This study assessed the concurrent validity of a smartphone global positioning system (GPS) 'app' and a sport-specific GPS device with a similar sampling rate, to measure physical activity components of speed and distance, compared to a higher sampling sport-specific GPS device. Thirty-eight (21 female, 17 male) participants, mean age of 24.68, s = 6.46 years, completed two 2.400 km trials around an all-weather athletics track wearing GPSports Pro™ (PRO), GPSports WiSpi™ (WISPI) and an iPhone™ with a Motion X GPS™ 'app' (MOTIONX). Statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an (mean; 95% LOA) underestimation of 2% for average speed (0.126 km·h(-1); -0.389 to 0.642; p < .001), 1.7% for maximal speed (0.442 km·h(-1); -2.676 to 3.561; p = .018) and 1.9% for distance (0.045 km; -0.140 to 0.232; p < .001) by MOTIONX compared to that measured by PRO. In contrast, compared to PRO, WISPI overestimated average speed (0.232 km·h(-1); -0.376 to 0.088; p < .001) and distance (0.083 km; -0.129 to -0.038; p < .001) by 3.5% whilst underestimating maximal speed by 2.5% (0.474 km·h(-1); -1.152 to 2.099; p < .001). Despite the statistically significant difference, the MOTIONX measures intensity of physical activity, with a similar error as WISPI, to an acceptable level for population-based monitoring in unimpeded open-air environments. This presents a low-cost, minimal burden opportunity to remotely monitor physical activity participation to improve the prescription of exercise as medicine.
    European Journal of Sport Science 10/2015; DOI:10.1080/17461391.2015.1105299 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite clear recommendations on the minimal amount of physical activity for achieving health benefits and reducing risk of chronic disease (Garber et al. 2011), the majority of people in the developed world remain largely sedentary (Tucker et al. 2011; Colley et al. 2011; Allender et al. 2008). As 'lack of time' has been identified as one of the main barriers to becoming and remaining physically active (Korkiakangas et al. 2009; Reichert et al. 2007), over the past decade research has focused on high-intensity interval training (HIT) as a timeefficient alternative to aerobic exercise (Gillen and Gibala 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose We have previously shown that 6 weeks of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) improves V˙O2max in sedentary men and women and insulin sensitivity in men. Here, we present two studies examining the acute physiological and molecular responses to REHIT. Methods In Study 1, five men and six women (age: 26 ± 7 year, BMI: 23 ± 3 kg m−2, V˙O2max: 51 ± 11 ml kg−1 min−1) performed a single 10-min REHIT cycling session (60 W and two 20-s ‘all-out’ sprints), with vastus lateralis biopsies taken before and 0, 30, and 180 min post-exercise for analysis of glycogen content, phosphorylation of AMPK, p38 MAPK and ACC, and gene expression of PGC1α and GLUT4. In Study 2, eight men (21 ± 2 year; 25 ± 4 kg·m−2; 39 ± 10 ml kg−1 min−1) performed three trials (REHIT, 30-min cycling at 50 % of V˙O2max, and a resting control condition) in a randomised cross-over design. Expired air, venous blood samples, and subjective measures of appetite and fatigue were collected before and 0, 15, 30, and 90 min post-exercise. Results Acutely, REHIT was associated with a decrease in muscle glycogen, increased ACC phosphorylation, and activation of PGC1α. When compared to aerobic exercise, changes in V˙O2, RER, plasma volume, and plasma lactate and ghrelin were significantly more pronounced with REHIT, whereas plasma glucose, NEFAs, PYY, and measures of appetite were unaffected. Conclusions Collectively, these data demonstrate that REHIT is associated with a pronounced disturbance of physiological homeostasis and associated activation of signalling pathways, which together may help explain previously observed adaptations once considered exclusive to aerobic exercise.
    Arbeitsphysiologie 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00421-015-3217-6 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    • "In contrast, the R-Group reported 117.2 minutes of MVPA, less than the current recommendations. The self-reported estimate of the V-Group, while consistent with a report of 288 min/week for adults N70 years by Tucker and colleagues [46], is likely an over-estimate, since Tucker and colleagues reported that data derived from accelerometry on their sample provided an estimate of only 45 min/week of MVPA. Regardless, even though both groups were weighted towards the most active residents, the V-Group was higher functioning than the R-Group. "
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    ABSTRACT: In partnership with six Continuing Care Retirement Communities (CCRCs), the current study focused on the feasibility of recruiting a representative sample of residents and then assessing their functional health. With our guidance, each of the six CCRCs recruited a volunteer (V-Group) and random (R-Group) sample of independent living residents. We provided face-to-face training and ongoing remote electronic support to the CCRC staff on the testing battery and the web-based data entry system. The testing battery was consisted of demographic, physical function, and psychosocial assessments. After training, CCRC staff were receptive to the study goals and successfully used the data entry website. In the V-Group (N=189), 76% were already participating in CCRC wellness programs. We attempted to recruit a random, unbiased (R-Group) sample of 20% (n=105) of eligible residents; however, only 30 consented to be tested and 70% of this group (21/30) was also already participating in a wellness program. Mean age of all participants was 82.9 years. The V-Group had a higher Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) total score (least squares mean[SE], 9.4[0.2] vs 8.2[0.4], p=0.014) and SPPB gait speed component score (3.5[0.1] vs 3.0[0.2], p=0.007) and spent more time doing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (300[21] vs 163[49] min/week, p=0.013) compared to the R-Group. While it is feasible to recruit, assess and transmit data on residents' functional health in partnership with CCRCs, population validity was severely compromised. Attention needs to be given to the development of more effective methods to recruit less interested residents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Contemporary Clinical Trials 12/2014; 40. DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.12.003 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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