Can Asperger syndrome be distinguished from autism? An anatomic likelihood meta-analysis of MRI studies. J Psychiatry Neurosci

Department of Psychiatry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.
Journal of psychiatry & neuroscience: JPN (Impact Factor: 5.86). 03/2011; 36(6):412-21. DOI: 10.1503/jpn.100138
Source: PubMed


The question of whether Asperger syndrome can be distinguished from autism has attracted much debate and may even incur delay in diagnosis and intervention. Accordingly, there has been a proposal for Asperger syndrome to be subsumed under autism in the forthcoming Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, in 2013. One approach to resolve this question has been to adopt the criterion of absence of clinically significant language or cognitive delay--essentially, the "absence of language delay." To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of people with autism to compare absence with presence of language delay. It capitalizes on the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to systematically explore the whole brain for anatomic correlates of delay and no delay in language acquisition in people with autism spectrum disorders.
We conducted a systematic search for VBM MRI studies of grey matter volume in people with autism. Studies with a majority (at least 70%) of participants with autism diagnoses and a history of language delay were assigned to the autism group (n = 151, control n = 190). Those with a majority (at least 70%) of individuals with autism diagnoses and no language delay were assigned to the Asperger syndrome group (n = 149, control n = 214). We entered study coordinates into anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis software with sampling size weighting to compare grey matter summary maps driven by Asperger syndrome or autism.
The summary autism grey matter map showed lower volumes in the cerebellum, right uncus, dorsal hippocampus and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in the bilateral caudate, prefrontal lobe and ventral temporal lobe. The summary Asperger syndrome map indicated lower grey matter volumes in the bilateral amygdala/hippocampal gyrus and prefrontal lobe, left occipital gyrus, right cerebellum, putamen and precuneus compared with controls; grey matter volumes were greater in more limited regions, including the bilateral inferior parietal lobule and the left fusiform gyrus. Both Asperger syndrome and autism studies reported volume increase in clusters in the ventral temporal lobe of the left hemisphere.
We assigned studies to autism and Asperger syndrome groups for separate analyses of the data and did not carry out a direct statistical group comparison. In addition, studies available for analysis did not capture the entire spectrum, therefore we cannot be certain that our findings apply to a wider population than that sampled.
Whereas grey matter differences in people with Asperger syndrome compared with controls are sparser than those reported in studies of people with autism, the distribution and direction of differences in each category are distinctive.

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    • "Looking at subcortical structures, the caudate has been shown to be enlarged in ASD, across whole brain volumetric meta-analyses (81–83), and in targeted ROI analysis, even after controlling for confounding medication administration (84). Volume loss in the putamen has been shown across whole brain meta-analyses in adults with ASD (81, 83, 85), but enlargement of the putamen has also been observed in younger populations (86). In the amygdala, volume losses emerge across whole brain meta-analytic approaches (83, 85, 87), but volume gains are noted in younger patient groups as well (88). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) are pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders associated with significant morbidity. Both conditions are thought to share an underlying genetic architecture. A comparison of neuroimaging findings across ASD and COS with a focus on altered neurodevelopmental trajectories can shed light on potential clinical biomarkers and may highlight an underlying etiopathogenesis. Methods: A comprehensive review of the medical literature was conducted to summarize neuroimaging data with respect to both conditions in terms of structural imaging (including volumetric analysis, cortical thickness and morphology, and region of interest studies), white matter analysis (include volumetric analysis and diffusion tensor imaging) and functional connectivity. Results: In ASD, a pattern of early brain overgrowth in the first few years of life is followed by dysmaturation in adolescence. Functional analyses have suggested impaired long-range connectivity as well as increased local and/or subcortical connectivity in this condition. In COS, deficits in cerebral volume, cortical thickness, and white matter maturation seem most pronounced in childhood and adolescence, and may level off in adulthood. Deficits in local connectivity, with increased long-range connectivity have been proposed, in keeping with exaggerated cortical thinning. Conclusion: The neuroimaging literature supports a neurodevelopmental origin of both ASD and COS and provides evidence for dynamic changes in both conditions that vary across space and time in the developing brain. Looking forward, imaging studies which capture the early post natal period, which are longitudinal and prospective, and which maximize the signal to noise ratio across heterogeneous conditions will be required to translate research findings into a clinical environment.
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 12/2013; 4:175. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00175
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    • "As described in previous meta-analyses of VBM studies, we adopted a threshold for the map of final ALE scores with a false discovery rate (FDR) corrected at p < 0.05 [71-73] and a cluster extent threshold of 100 mm3[72,74]. In addition, we chose the resultant coordinates to be reported for all submaxima in a single ALE cluster (all extrema). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The results of multiple studies on the association between antipsychotic use and structural brain changes in schizophrenia have been assessed only in qualitative literature reviews to date. We aimed to perform a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies on this association to quantitatively synthesize the findings of these studies. Methods: A systematic computerized literature search was carried out through MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS and PsycINFO databases aiming to identify all VBM studies addressing this question and meeting predetermined inclusion criteria. All studies reporting coordinates representing foci of structural brain changes associated with antipsychotic use were meta-analyzed by using the activation likelihood estimation technique, currently the most sophisticated and best-validated tool for voxel-wise meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. Results: Ten studies (five cross-sectional and five longitudinal) met the inclusion criteria and comprised a total of 548 individuals (298 patients on antipsychotic drugs and 250 controls). Depending on the methodologies of the selected studies, the control groups included healthy subjects, drug-free patients, or the same patients evaluated repeatedly in longitudinal comparisons (i.e., serving as their own controls). A total of 102 foci associated with structural alterations were retrieved. The meta-analysis revealed seven clusters of areas with consistent structural brain changes in patients on antipsychotics compared to controls. The seven clusters included four areas of relative volumetric decrease in the left lateral temporal cortex [Brodmann area (BA) 20], left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44), superior frontal gyrus extending to the left middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), and right rectal gyrus (BA 11), and three areas of relative volumetric increase in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24), left ventral anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) and right putamen. Conclusions: Our results identify the specific brain regions where possible associations between antipsychotic drug usage and structural brain changes in schizophrenia patients are more consistently reported. Additional longitudinal VBM studies including larger and more homogeneous samples of schizophrenia patients may be needed to further disentangle such alterations from those possibly linked to the intrinsic pathological progressive process in schizophrenia. Keywords: Schizophrenia; Antipsychotics; Voxel-based morphometry; Magnetic resonance imaging; Neuroimaging
    BMC Psychiatry 12/2013; 13(1):342. DOI:10.1186/1471-244X-13-342 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    • "Voxel-based morphometry studies have reported both increases and decreases in cerebellar GM and WM (Fig. 1.3). Decreased GM is consistently found in midline IX, right Crus I, and lobule VIII in ASD, and in some studies lobule IX was the most significant cluster in the entire brain; increased GM was reported in lobule VI (Cauda et al., 2011; Duerden, Mak-Fan, Taylor, & Roberts, 2012; Nickl-Jockschat et al., 2012; Yu, Cheung, Chua, & McAlonan, 2011). Resting-state activity in lobule IX and right Crus I most strongly correlates with the default mode network (Buckner et al., 2011), and healthy males engage Crus I bilaterally during both theory of mind and empathy tasks (Vollm et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: The cerebellum has been long known for its importance in motor learning and coordination. Recently, anatomical, clinical, and neuroimaging studies strongly suggest that the cerebellum supports cognitive functions, including language and executive functions, as well as affective regulation. Furthermore, the cerebellum has emerged as one of the key brain regions affected in autism. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the role of the cerebellum in autism, including evidence from genetic, molecular, clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies. Cerebellar findings in autism suggest developmental differences at multiple levels of neural structure and function, indicating that the cerebellum is an important player in the complex neural underpinnings of autism spectrum disorder, with behavioral implications beyond the motor domain.
    International Review of Neurobiology 12/2013; 113:1-34. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-418700-9.00001-0 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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