Effectiveness of bed bug monitors for detecting and trapping bed bugs in apartments.

Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Journal of Economic Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.61). 02/2011; 104(1):274-8.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are now considered a serious urban pest in the United States. Because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. Several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. We comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: CDC3000, NightWatch, and a home-made dry ice trap. The Climbup Insect Interceptor, a passive monitor (without attractants), was used for estimating the bed bug numbers before and after placing active monitors. The results of the Interceptors also were compared with the results of the active monitors. In occupied apartments, the relative effectiveness of the active monitors was: dry ice trap > CDC3000 > NightWatch. In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor (operated for 7 d) trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap (operated for 1 d) and trapped more bed bugs than CDC3000 and NightWatch (operated for 1 d). The Interceptor was also more effective than visual inspections in detecting the presence of small numbers of bed bugs. CDC3000 and the dry ice trap operated for 1 d were equally as effective as the visual inspections for detecting very low level of infestations, whereas 1-d deployment of NightWatch detected significantly lower number of infestations compared with visual inspections. NightWatch was designed to be able to operate for several consecutive nights. When operated for four nights, NightWatch trapped similar number of bed bugs as the Interceptors operated for 10 d after deployment of NightWatch. We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bed bugs, (Cimex lectularius L.), are difficult to find because of their nocturnal and secretive behavior. In recent years, a number of monitors containing carbon dioxide (CO2), chemical lures, heat, or both, to attract bed bugs have been developed for detecting bed bugs. Ineffective trap design, lack of attraction of chemical lures, high cost of the CO2 delivery system, or insufficient CO release rates are some factors that limited the wide adoption of these monitors. To develop an affordable and effective monitor, we conducted a series of laboratory and field tests. Specifically, we tested a new pitfall trap design, a chemical lure mixture, different CO2 release rates, and a sugar and yeast mixture as CO2 source. Results show the new pitfall trap design was significantly more effective than Climbup insect interceptor, the most effective passive monitor available in the market for bed bugs. The experimental chemical lure mixture increased Climbup insect interceptor catch by 2.2 times. Results exhibit a distinct positive relationship between the CO2 release rates and bed bug trap catches. There were no significant differences between CO2 derived from cylinders and CO2 generated from sugar and yeast mixture in their attractiveness to bed bugs. The findings suggest an effective and affordable monitor can be made incorporating the new pitfall trap design, a sugar and yeast mixture, and a chemical lure.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 08/2013; 106(4):1802-11. · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future.
    Journal of Medical Entomology 01/2015; · 1.82 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2), heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.
    Psyche A Journal of Entomology 01/2012; 2012.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 4, 2014