Article

Effectiveness of Bed Bug Monitors for Detecting and Trapping Bed Bugs in Apartments

Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Journal of Economic Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.61). 02/2011; 104(1):274-8. DOI: 10.1603/EC10141
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are now considered a serious urban pest in the United States. Because they are small and difficult to find, there has been strong interest in developing and using monitoring tools to detect bed bugs and evaluate the results of bed bug control efforts. Several bed bug monitoring devices were developed recently, but their effectiveness is unknown. We comparatively evaluated three active monitors that contain attractants: CDC3000, NightWatch, and a home-made dry ice trap. The Climbup Insect Interceptor, a passive monitor (without attractants), was used for estimating the bed bug numbers before and after placing active monitors. The results of the Interceptors also were compared with the results of the active monitors. In occupied apartments, the relative effectiveness of the active monitors was: dry ice trap > CDC3000 > NightWatch. In lightly infested apartments, the Interceptor (operated for 7 d) trapped similar number of bed bugs as the dry ice trap (operated for 1 d) and trapped more bed bugs than CDC3000 and NightWatch (operated for 1 d). The Interceptor was also more effective than visual inspections in detecting the presence of small numbers of bed bugs. CDC3000 and the dry ice trap operated for 1 d were equally as effective as the visual inspections for detecting very low level of infestations, whereas 1-d deployment of NightWatch detected significantly lower number of infestations compared with visual inspections. NightWatch was designed to be able to operate for several consecutive nights. When operated for four nights, NightWatch trapped similar number of bed bugs as the Interceptors operated for 10 d after deployment of NightWatch. We conclude these monitors are effective tools in detecting early bed bug infestations and evaluating the results of bed bug control programs.

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    ABSTRACT: Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. We designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar–yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. The sugar–yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation. In naturally infested apartments, the sugar–yeast monitor containing an experimental chemical lure (nonanal, L-lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and spearmint oil) was equally effective as the dry ice monitor containing the same lure in trapping bed bugs. Placing one sugar–yeast monitor per apartment for 1-d was equally effective as 11-d placement of 6–18 Climbup insect interceptors (a commonly used bed bug monitor) under furniture legs for trapping bed bugs. When carbon dioxide was present, pair-wise comparisons showed the experimental lure increased trap catch by 7.2 times. This sugar–yeast monitor with a chemical lure is an affordable and effective tool for monitoring bed bugs. This monitor is especially useful for monitoring bed bugs where a human host is not present. KEY WORDS sugar–yeast, dry ice, carbon dioxide, chemical lure Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs early, guide treatments to target areas, and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Passive bed bug monitors (monitors that do not contain lures) such as Climbup insect interceptors (Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN) referred to hereafter as intercep-tors are used extensively for bed bug monitoring (Wang et al. 2009, 2011). Drawbacks of passive monitors include heavy lifting of furniture, up to 14-d placement to confirm the presence of bed bugs, and reduced effectiveness in nonoccupied environments. As a result, there has been continued interest in developing active bed bug monitors that use carbon dioxide (CO 2), chemical lure, and heat for attracting bed bugs in both occupied and nonoccupied environments. CO 2 release rate is the determining factor in the efficacy of an active bed bug monitor. There is a distinct positive relationship between the CO 2 release rates and bed bug trap catches (Singh et al. 2013). For example, a dry ice monitor was found to be more effective than two commercially available active monitors (CDC 3000 and NightWatch) in bed bug-infested apartments (Wang et al. 2011), primarily due to the dry ice moni-tor's high CO 2 release rate (731 ml/min) compared with CDC 3000 (42 ml/min) and NightWatch (161 ml/min). Similar relationships between CO 2 release rate and trap efficacy have been found in mosquitoes (McIver and McElligott 1989, Kline et al. 1991, Dekkar and Takken 1998). Sugar–yeast traps with a release rate of 136 ml/min CO 2 caught significantly fewer mosquitoes than the traps with 303 ml/min CO 2 (Smallegange et al. 2010). In order to compete with the human host in an occupied environment, an active bed bug monitor may need to release CO 2 at a rate that is competitive to the human respiration rate of 250 ml/min (Leff and Schu-macker 1993). With the exception of the NightWatch monitor, commercially available active monitors such as Bed Bug Beacon (Nuvenco, Fort Collins, CO), Verifi (FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA), First Response Bed Bug Monitor (SpringStar Inc., Woodinville, WA), etc. produce <50 ml/min CO 2 , which is much lower than the human respiration rate. The insufficient CO 2 release rates render these monitors either ineffective or have very limited effective range, therefore requiring multiple monitors to be installed per room.
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. We designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar-yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. The sugar-yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation. In naturally infested apartments, the sugar-yeast monitor containing an experimental chemical lure (nonanal, l-lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and spearmint oil) was equally effective as the dry ice monitor containing the same lure in trapping bed bugs. Placing one sugar-yeast monitor per apartment for 1-d was equally effective as 11-d placement of 6-18 Climbup insect interceptors (a commonly used bed bug monitor) under furniture legs for trapping bed bugs. When carbon dioxide was present, pair-wise comparisons showed the experimental lure increased trap catch by 7.2 times. This sugar-yeast monitor with a chemical lure is an affordable and effective tool for monitoring bed bugs. This monitor is especially useful for monitoring bed bugs where a human host is not present.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/jee/tov061 · 1.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. We designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar–yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. The sugar–yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation. In naturally infested apartments, the sugar–yeast monitor containing an experimental chemical lure (nonanal, L-lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and spearmint oil) was equally effective as the dry ice monitor containing the same lure in trapping bed bugs. Placing one sugar–yeast monitor per apartment for 1-d was equally effective as 11-d placement of 6–18 Climbup insect interceptors (a commonly used bed bug monitor) under furniture legs for trapping bed bugs. When carbon dioxide was present, pair-wise comparisons showed the experimental lure increased trap catch by 7.2 times. This sugar–yeast monitor with a chemical lure is an affordable and effective tool for monitoring bed bugs. This monitor is especially useful for monitoring bed bugs where a human host is not present.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 01/2015; · 1.61 Impact Factor