Erythropoietin protects against apoptosis and increases expression of non-neuronal cell markers in the hypoxia-injured developing brain.
ABSTRACT Erythropoietin (EPO) is a cytokine hormone with cytoprotective effects in many tissues including the brain. Although the benefits of administration of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) for neonatal hypoxic brain injury have been demonstrated in neuronal tissue, the effect on non-neuronal cell populations is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that rhEPO would not only protect neuronal cells but also glial cells at a stage of brain development where their maturation was particularly sensitive, and also protect the vasculature. This was evaluated in a rat model of hypoxic injury. 1000 IU/kg rhEPO was delivered intraperitoneally at the start of 4 h hypoxia or normoxia. Treatment groups of neonatal rats (day of birth, at least N = 10 per group) were as follows: normoxia; normoxia plus rhEPO; hypoxia (8% FiO(2) delivered in temperature-controlled chambers); and hypoxia plus rhEPO. Day of birth in rats is equivalent to human gestation of 28-32 weeks. The effects of rhEPO administration, especially to non-neuronal cell populations, and the associated molecular pathways, were investigated. Apoptosis was increased with hypoxia and this was significantly reduced with rhEPO (p < 0.05). The neuronal marker, microtubule-associated protein-2, increased in expression (p < 0.05) when apoptosis was significantly reduced by rhEPO. In addition, compared with hypoxia alone, rhEPO-treated hypoxia had the following significant protein expression increases (p < 0.05): the intermediate filament structural protein nestin; myelin basic protein (oligodendrocytes); and glial fibrillary acidic protein (astrocytes). In conclusion, rhEPO protects the developing brain via anti-apoptotic mechanisms and promotes the health of non-neuronal as well as neuronal cell populations at a time when loss of these cells would have long-lasting effects on brain function.
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ABSTRACT: Perinatal brain injury frequently complicates preterm birth and leads to significant long-term morbidity. Cytokines and inflammatory cells are mediators in the common pathways associated with perinatal brain injury induced by a variety of insults, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, reperfusion injury, toxin-mediated injury, and infection. This paper examines our current knowledge regarding cytokine-related perinatal brain injury and specifically discusses strategies for attenuating cytokine-mediated brain damage.Neurology research international. 01/2012; 2012:561494.
Article: Prevention of β-amyloid degeneration of microglia by erythropoietin depends on Wnt1, the PI 3-K/mTOR pathway, Bad, and Bcl-xL.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Central nervous system microglia promote neuronal regeneration and sequester toxic β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition during Alzheimer's disease. We show that the cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) decreases the toxic effect of Aβ on microgliain vitro. EPO up-regulates the cysteine-rich glycosylated wingless protein Wnt1 and activates the PI 3-K/Akt1/mTOR/ p70S6K pathway. This in turn increases phosphorylation and cytosol trafficking of Bad, reduces the Bad/Bcl-xL complex and increases the Bcl-xL/Bax complex, thus preventing caspase 1 and caspase 3 activation and apoptosis. Our data may foster development of novel strategies to use cytoprotectants such as EPO for Alzheimer's disease and other degenerative disorders.Aging 03/2012; 4(3):187-201. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin is known as the requisite cytokine for red blood cell production. Its receptor, expressed at a high level on erythroid progenitor/precursor cells, is also found on endothelial, neural, and other cell types. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the developing and adult brain suggest their possible involvement in neurodevelopment and neuroprotection. During ischemic stress, erythropoietin, which is hypoxia inducible, can contribute to brain homeostasis by increasing red blood cell production to increase the blood oxygen carrying capacity, stimulate nitric oxide production to modulate blood flow and contribute to the neurovascular response, or act directly on neural cells to provide neuroprotection as demonstrated in culture and animal models. Clinical studies of erythropoietin treatment in stroke and other diseases provide insight on safety and potential adverse effects and underscore the potential pleiotropic activity of erythropoietin. Herein, we summarize the roles of EPO and its receptor in the developing and adult brain during health and disease, providing first a brief overview of the well-established EPO biology and signaling, its hypoxic regulation, and role in erythropoiesis.Anatomy research international. 01/2012; 2012:953264.