Stopping smoking shortly before surgery and postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT To examine existing smoking studies that compare surgical patients who have recently quit smoking with those who continue to smoke to provide an evidence-based recommendation for front-line staff. Concerns have been expressed that stopping smoking within 8 weeks before surgery may be detrimental to postoperative outcomes. This has generated considerable uncertainty even in health care systems that consider smoking cessation advice in the hospital setting an important priority. Smokers who stop smoking shortly before surgery (recent quitters) have been reported to have worse surgical outcomes than early quitters, but this may indicate only that recent quitting is less beneficial than early quitting, not that it is risky.
Systematic review with meta-analysis.
British Nursing Index (BNI), The Cochrane Library database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, Medline, PsycINFO to May 2010, and reference lists of included studies.
Studies were included that allow a comparison of postoperative complications in patients undergoing any type of surgery who stopped smoking within 8 weeks prior to surgery and those who continued to smoke.
Two reviewers independently screened potential studies and assessed their methodologic quality. Data were entered into 3 separate meta-analyses that considered all available studies, studies with a low risk of bias that validated self-reported abstinence (to assess possible benefits), and studies of pulmonary complications only (to assess possible risks). Results were combined by using a random-effects model, and heterogeneity was evaluated by using the I(2) statistic.
Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. One found a beneficial effect of recent quitting compared with continuing smoking, and none identified any detrimental effects. In meta-analyses, quitting smoking within 8 weeks before surgery was not associated with an increase or decrease in overall postoperative complications for all available studies (relative risk [RR], 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-1.07), for a group of 3 studies with high-quality scores (RR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.16-2.01), or for a group of 4 studies that specifically evaluated pulmonary complications (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.46).
Existing data indicate that the concern that stopping smoking only a few weeks prior to surgery might worsen clinical outcomes is unfounded. Further larger studies would be useful to arrive at a more robust conclusion. Patients should be advised to stop smoking as early as possible, but there is no evidence to suggest that health professionals should not be advising smokers to quit at any time prior to surgery.
- International journal of cardiology. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to measure the effects of sending a smoking cessation 'quit-pack' to all patients placed on the elective surgical waiting list. Questionnaire-based study before intervention (mid-2011, 177 patients) and after (2012/13, 170 patients) conducted on day of surgery. All were identified as adult smokers at time of waiting list placement at an outer metropolitan Melbourne public hospital. The intervention was a quit-pack consisting of educational brochure containing cessation advice and focused on perioperative risks of smoking, together with Quitline referral form and reply-paid envelope. The primary outcome measure was proportion of smokers who quit on waiting list for ≥1 month before surgery, considered a clinically meaningful duration to reduce surgical complications. An 8.6% improvement in waiting list smokers achieving the target ≥1 month abstinence at day of surgery (P = 0.03). The number needed to treat of 12 (95% confidence interval 6-240) meant 12 smokers receiving intervention would create one additional episode of clinically meaningful quitting on wait list. Smoking cessation outcomes before elective surgery are significantly improved by systematic application of a printed intervention delivered at time of wait list placement that encourages and supports perioperative quitting.ANZ Journal of Surgery 02/2014; · 1.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Post-operative pulmonary complications (PPCs) negatively affect patients' quality of life and can be life-threatening. Predictors of PPCs have been evaluated in patients who underwent various operations, but few studies have specifically focused on gastrectomy. Methods: We retrospectively studied 1,053 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent radical gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy in our hospital between 1999 and 2011. Post-operative pulmonary complications were defined as conditions such as pneumonia, macroscopic atelectasis, pneumothorax, and acute respiratory distress syndrome that developed within 30 d after surgery. We evaluated the relations between PPCs and pre-operative or intra-operative factors and assessed risk factors for PPCs after gastrectomy. Result: A total of 49 (4.7%) patients had PPCs. On univariate analysis, PPCs were significantly associated with male gender (p=0.024), predicted vital capacity (VC) (p=0.020), a lower pre-operative serum albumin concentration (p=0.023), open surgery (p=0.007), total gastrectomy (p<0.001), combined resection of another organ (p=0.001), extended operating time (p<0.001), higher operative bleeding volume (p<0.001), intra-operative or post-operative blood transfusion (p=0.009), and pathologic tumor stage (p=0.003). On multivariable analysis, extended operating time (odds ratio [OR], 3.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46-7.07; p=0.004), total gastrectomy (OR, 2.65, 95% CI 1.25-5.59; p=0.011) and predicted VC (OR, 2.42, 95% CI 1.01-5.85; p=0.049) were independent risk factors. These three factors also were independent risk factors for post-operative pneumonia (total gastrectomy OR, 2.64, 95% CI 1.32-5.30; p=0.006); extended operating time OR, 2.54, 95% CI 1.24-5.19; p=0.011; and predicted VC OR, 2.41, 95% CI 1.01-5.75; p=0.048). Conclusion: Extended operating time, total gastrectomy, and predicted VC were independent predictors of PPCs, particularly pneumonia, in patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy. In patients with restrictive pulmonary dysfunction who are scheduled to undergo total gastrectomy, reduced lymphadenectomy or the avoidance of combined resection should be considered to shorten the operating time.Surgical Infections 05/2014; · 1.87 Impact Factor