A proteomic analysis of engineered tendon formation under dynamic mechanical loading in vitro.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai 9th People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering Research, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai 200011, PR China.
Biomaterials (Impact Factor: 8.31). 03/2011; 32(17):4085-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.02.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of mechanical loading on in vitro tendon engineering. To understand the mechanism, human tenocytes and polyglycolic acid long fibers were used for in vitro tendon engineering in a bioreactor system for 12 weeks with and without dynamic loading. The engineered neo-tendons were subjected to proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry along with shotgun strategy. As expected, mechanical loading resulted in a more mature tendon tissue characterized by a firmer tissue texture and densely deposited matrices which formed longitudinally aligned collagen fibers in a highly compact fashion. In contrast, non-loaded neo-tendon revealed loosely and less deposited matrices in a relatively less organized pattern. Proteins isolated from two groups of tissues exhibited similar distribution of isoeletric point and molecular weight indicating the similarity and comparability of the tissue specimens. Further, proteomic analysis showed that total 758 proteins were identified from both groups with 194 and 177 proteins uniquely presented in loaded and non-loaded tendons, respectively. Comparison of loaded and non-loaded tendons revealed 195 significantly up-regulated proteins and 189 significantly down-regulated proteins. The differentially expressed proteins could generally be classified into the categories of extracellular matrix, intra-cellular signaling, cytoskeleton and inflammatory response. Among them, significantly up-regulated collagens I and VI, MMP-14, WNT5A, microfilament molecules and some inflammatory factors suggest that the possible mechanism for this particular biological phenomenon may involve increased production of tendon specific matrices, enhanced cross-link of collagens and other matrix molecules, proper matrix remodeling for tissue maturation and mechanotransduction (including non-canonical Wnt signal pathway) mediated other biological processes.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mechanical stimulation plays an important role in the development and remodeling of tendons. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are an attractive cell source for tendon injury and tendon tissue engineering. However, these cells have not yet been fully explored for tendon tissue engineering application, and there is also lack of understanding to the effect of mechanical stimulation on the maturation of TDSCs-scaffold construct for tendon tissue engineering. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of TDSCs in a poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)/collagen (P(LLA-CL)/Col) scaffold under mechanical stimulation for tendon tissue engineering both in vitro and in vivo, and evaluated the utility of the transplanted TDSCs-scaffold construct to promote rabbit patellar tendon defect regeneration. TDSCs displayed good proliferation and positive expressed tendon-related extracellular matrix (ECM) genes and proteins under mechanical stimulation in vitro. After implanting into the nude mice, the fluorescence imaging indicated that TDSCs had long-term survival, and the macroscopic evaluation, histology and immunohistochemistry examinations showed high-quality neo-tendon formation under mechanical stimulation in vivo. Furthermore, the histology, immunohistochemistry, collagen content assay and biomechanical testing data indicated that dynamically cultured TDSCs-scaffold construct could significantly contributed to tendon regeneration in a rabbit patellar tendon window defect model. TDSCs have significant potential to be used as seeded cells in the development of tissue-engineered tendons, which can be successfully fabricated through seeding of TDSCs in a P(LLA-CL)/Col scaffold followed by mechanical stimulation.
    Biomaterials 01/2014; · 8.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and re-injury is greater for women than men. Among other factors, compositional differences may play a role in this differential risk. Patellar tendon (PT) autografts are commonly used during reconstruction. The aim of the study was to compare protein expression in male and female ACL and PT. We hypothesized that there would be differences in key structural components between PT and ACL, and that components of the proteome critical for response to mechanical loading and response to injury would demonstrate significant differences between male and female. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and a label-free quantitative approach was used to identify proteomic differences between male and female PT and ACL. ACL contained less type I and more type III collagen than PT. There were tissue-specific differences in expression of proteoglycans, and ACL was enriched in elastin, tenascin C and X, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, thrombospondin 4 and periostin. Between male and female donors, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and complement component 9 were enriched in female compared to male. Myocilin was the major protein enriched in males compared to females. Important compositional differences between PT and ACL were identified, and we identified differences in pathways related to extracellular matrix regulation, complement, apoptosis, metabolism of advanced glycation end-products and response to mechanical loading between males and females. Identification of proteomic differences between male and female PT and ACL has identified novel pathways which may lead to improved understanding of differential ACL injury and re-injury risk between males and females.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96526. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cells sense various in vivo mechanical stimuli, which initiate downstream signaling to mechanical forces. While a body of evidences is presented on the impact of limited mechanical regulators in past decades, the mechanisms how biomechanical responses globally affect cell function need to be addressed. Complexity and diversity of in vivo mechanical clues present distinct patterns of shear flow, tensile stretch, or mechanical compression with various parametric combination of its magnitude, duration, or frequency. Thus, it is required to understand, from the viewpoint of mechanobiology, what mechanical features of cells are, why mechanical properties are different among distinct cell types, and how forces are transduced to downstream biochemical signals. Meanwhile, those in vitro isolated mechanical stimuli are usually coupled together in vivo, suggesting that the different factors that are in effect individually could be canceled out or orchestrated with each other. Evidently, omics analysis, a powerful tool in the field of system biology, is advantageous to combine with mechanobiology and then to map the full-set of mechanically sensitive proteins and transcripts encoded by its genome. This new emerging field, namely mechanomics, makes it possible to elucidate the global responses under systematically-varied mechanical stimuli. This review discusses the current advances in the related fields of mechanomics and elaborates how cells sense external forces and activate the biological responses.
    Protein & Cell 04/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor


Available from

Similar Publications