Dual transplantation of human neural stem cells into cervical and lumbar cord ameliorates motor neuron disease in SOD1 transgenic rats.
ABSTRACT Stem cells provide novel sources of cell therapies for motor neuron disease that have recently entered clinical trials. In the present study, we transplanted human neural stem cells (NSCs) into the ventral horn of both the lumbar (L4-L5) and cervical (C4-C5) protuberance of SOD1 G93A rats, in an effort to test the feasibility and general efficacy of a dual grafting paradigm addressing several muscle groups in the front limbs, hind limbs and the respiratory apparatus. Transplantation was done prior to the onset of motor neuron disease. Compared with animals that had received dead NSC grafts (serving as controls), rats with live NSCs grafted at the two spinal levels lived 17 days longer. Disease onset in dually grafted animals was delayed by 10 days compared to control animals. Disease duration in NSC-grafted animals was longer by 7 days compared to controls. Our results support the potential of NSC grafts at multiple levels of spinal cord as future cellular therapy for motor neuron disease.
SourceAvailable from: Amit K. Srivastava[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), characterized by the progressive loss of both upper and lower motor neurons, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. This disease is often accompanied by a tremendous physical and emotional burden not only for the patients, but also for their families and friends as well. There is no clinically relevant treatment available for ALS. To date, only one Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug, Riluzole, licensed 18 years ago, has been proven to marginally prolong patients' survival without improving the quality of their lives. Because of the lack of an effective drug treatment and the promising outcomes from several preclinical studies, researchers have highlighted this disease as a suitable candidate for stem cell therapy. This review article highlights the finding of key preclinical studies that present a rationale for the use of different types of stem cells for the treatment of ALS, and the most recent updates on the stem cell-based ALS clinical trials around the world.Neurology India 05/2014; 62(3):239-48. DOI:10.4103/0028-3886.136895 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neurological diseases afflict a growing proportion of the human population. There are two reasons for this: first, the average age of the population (especially in the industrialized world) is increasing, and second, the diagnostic tools to detect these pathologies are now more sophisticated and can be used on a higher percentage of the population. In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological treatment which, as in the case of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy, and Multiple Sclerosis can reduce the symptoms and slow down the course of the disease but cannot reverse its effects or heal the patient. In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. The choice of slightly different animal models and the differences in methods of stem cell preparation make it difficult to compare the results of transplantation experiments. Moreover, the translation of these results into clinical trials with human subjects is difficult and has so far met with little success. This review seeks to discuss the reasons for these difficulties by considering the differences between human and animal cells (including isolation, handling and transplantation) and between the human disease model and the animal disease model.Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 05/2014; 2:17. DOI:10.3389/fcell.2014.00017
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ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons without a known cure. Based on the possibility of cellular neuroprotection and early preclinical results, stem cells have gained widespread enthusiasm as a potential treatment strategy. Preclinical models demonstrate a protective role of engrafted stem cells and provided the basis for human trials carried out using various types of stem cells, as well as a range of cell delivery methods. To date, no trial has demonstrated a clear therapeutic benefit; however, results remain encouraging and are the basis for ongoing studies. In addition, stem cell technology continues to improve, and induced pluripotent stem cells may offer additional therapeutic options in the future. Improved disease models and clinical trials will be essential in order to validate stem cells as a beneficial therapy.Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 03/2015; 12(2). DOI:10.1007/s13311-015-0339-9 · 3.88 Impact Factor