Anti-epileptogenesis in rodent post-traumatic epilepsy models.
ABSTRACT Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) accounts for 10-20% of symptomatic epilepsies. The urgency to understand the process of post-traumatic epileptogenesis and search for antiepileptogenic treatments is emphasized by a recent increase in traumatic brain injury (TBI) related to military combat or accidents in the aging population. Recent developments in modeling of PTE in rodents have provided tools for identification of novel drug targets for antiepileptogenesis and biomarkers for predicting the risk of epileptogenesis and treatment efficacy after TBI. Here we review the available data on endophenotypes of humans and rodents with TBI associated with epilepsy. Also, current understanding of the mechanisms and biomarkers for PTE as well as factors associated with preclinical study designs are discussed. Finally, we summarize the attempts to prevent PTE in experimental models.
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ABSTRACT: Experiments were conducted in the Patagonian steppe in southern South America to test the following hypotheses; (a) grasses take up most of the water from the upper layers of the soil and utilize frequent and short-duration pulses of water availability; (b) shrubs, on the contrary, take up most of the water from the lower layers of the soil and utilize infrequent and long-duration pulses of water availability. Grasses and shrubs were removed selectively and the performance of plants and the availabilty of soil resources were monitored. Results supported the overall hypothesis that grasses and shrubs in the Patagonian steppe use mainly different resources. Removal of shrubs did not alter grass production but removal of grasses resulted in a small increase in shrub production which was mediated by an increase in deep soil water and in shrub leaf water potential. The efficiency of utilization of resources freed by grass removal was approximately 25%. Shrubs used water exclusively from lower soil layers. Grasses took up most of the water from upper layers but they were also capable of absorbing water from deep layers. This pattern of water partitioning along with the lack of response in leaf nitrogen to the removal treatments suggested that shrubs may be at a disadvantage to grasses with respect to nutrient capture and led to questions about the role of nutrient recirculation, leaching, and nitrogen fixation in the steppe.01/1989; 81:501-505.
- African Journal of Ecology 09/2007; 46(2):186 - 196. · 0.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Grass cover along a grazing intensity gradient in Patagonia decreases, whereas bare soil and shrub cover increases. Our objective was to study the effect of a change in the dominant plant functional type on soil water balance, primary production, herbivore biomass, roughness, and albedo. Using a soil water balance model, we found increases in evaporation and deep drainage, and a decrease in total transpiration along the grazing intensity gradient. Above-ground primary production, estimated from transpiration, decreased along the grazing intensity gradient because shrubs did not fully compensate for the decrease in grass production. Using a statistical model, we calculated herbivore biomass from estimates of above-ground primary production. Estimated herbivore biomass was lowest in the shrub-dominated extreme of the grazing gradient. Roughness increased from the grass-dominated to the shrub-dominated community. Albedo had a maximum at an intermediate position along the gradient.Our results suggest that changes in plant functional type composition, independent of changes in biomass, affect ecosystem functioning and the exchange of energy and material with the atmosphere. Grasses and shrubs proved to be appropriate plant functional types to link structure and function of ecosystems.Journal of Vegetation Science 05/1996; 7(3):381 - 390. · 2.82 Impact Factor