Analgesic drug administration and attitudes about analgesia in cattle among bovine practitioners in the United States.
ABSTRACT To determine current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and to identify factors associated with these attitudes and practices.
Web-based survey. Sample-3,019 US members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) with e-mail addresses.
Veterinarians were invited via e-mail to participate in a Web-based survey. Respondents replied to questions related to pain and analgesia and supplied personal, professional, and demographic information. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and associations among various factors were examined.
666 surveys (25.5% response rate) were analyzed. Among common procedures and medical conditions of cattle listed on the survey, castration of dairy calves < 6 months old was subjectively estimated as causing the least pain; abdominal surgery, toxic mastitis, and dehorning of calves > 6 months old were assessed as causing the greatest pain. Respondents reported not providing analgesic drugs to approximately 70% of calves castrated at < 6 months of age. The most commonly administered analgesics were NSAIDs, local anesthetics, and α(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists. Significant associations were detected among respondent characteristics and pain ratings, percentages of cattle treated, and opinions regarding analgesia.
Results provide information on current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and can be considered in the development of policies and protocols for pain management in cattle. These data can be compared with those of future studies to examine changes over time.
- SourceAvailable from: Johann F Coetzee[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dehorning is common in the cattle industry, and there is a need for research evaluating pain mitigation techniques. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of oral meloxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, on cattle behavior post-dehorning by monitoring the percent of time spent standing, walking, and lying in specific locations within the pen using accelerometers and a remote triangulation device. Twelve calves approximately ten weeks of age were randomized into 2 treatment groups (meloxicam or control) in a complete block design by body weight. Six calves were orally administered 0.5 mg/kg meloxicam at the time of dehorning and six calves served as negative controls. All calves were dehorned using thermocautery and behavior of each calf was continuously monitored for 7 days after dehorning using accelerometers and a remote triangulation device. Accelerometers monitored lying behavior and the remote triangulation device was used to monitor each calf's movement within the pen. RESULTS: Analysis of behavioral data revealed significant interactions between treatment (meloxicam vs. control) and the number of days post dehorning. Calves that received meloxicam spent more time at the grain bunk on trial days 2 and 6 post-dehorning; spent more time lying down on days 1, 2, 3, and 4; and less time at the hay feeder on days 0 and 1 compared to the control group. Meloxicam calves tended to walk more at the beginning and end of the trial compared to the control group. By day 5, the meloxicam and control group exhibited similar behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The noted behavioral changes provide evidence of differences associated with meloxicam administration. More studies need to be performed to evaluate the relationship of behavior monitoring and post-operative pain. To our knowledge this is the first published report demonstrating behavioral changes following dehorning using a remote triangulation device in conjunction with accelerometers.BMC Veterinary Research 04/2012; 8(1):48. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dehorning in cattle has been associated with behavioral, physiological, and neuroendocrine responses indicative of pain. Unaddressed, the pain associated with a routine production procedure could contribute to a negative public perception of livestock production practices. Alternative considerations of dehorning include the selection of polled cattle within herds, thereby avoiding pain and production loss. As polledness results from an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, genetic selection for polled cattle could reduce the prevalence of the horned trait. Herein we discuss 3 strategies to incorporate polled genetics into a cow herd and the estimated impact on the overall genetic merit of the herd. Furthermore, the availability and genetic merit of polled artificial insemination bulls in the United States is summarized. Both Holstein and Jersey dairy bulls registered with the National Association of Animal Breeders from December 2010 through April 2013 were queried. Polled bulls were identified as either being homozygous (PP) or heterozygous (Pp) and the average net merit (NM) predicted transmitting ability (PTA) of each sire group was calculated. The percentage of polled calves born each year over a 10-yr period was calculated for the following 3 scenarios: (A) various percentages of horned cows were randomly mated to Pp bulls, (B) various percentages of horned cows were preferentially mated to Pp bulls, and (C) horned cows were selectively mated to PP bulls, heterozygous cows to Pp bulls, and homozygous polled cows to horned bulls. Additionally, the change in NM PTA of the cow herd was calculated over the same period. The highest percentage of polled animals (87%) was achieved in scenario C. An evaluation of the herd NM PTA highlights the trade-offs associated with increasing polled genetics. Given the current genetic merit of horned and polled bulls, increasing the percentage of polled calves will decrease the NM PTA in Holstein, but may have minimal impact in Jersey herds. Decisions regarding selective breeding to increase polled genetics will need to be evaluated in the context of production objectives, cost of dehorning, and impact on overall genetic merit.Journal of Dairy Science 06/2014; · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objectives of the current research were to determine the physiological effects and responses of many leukocytes following surgical castration and/(or) physical dehorning and the influence of anesthetics and analgesics in 3-month-old calves. Eighty 3-month-old Holstein bull calves were completely randomized to treatments in a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement with castration, dehorning, and anesthetic/analgesic as the main effects. Peripheral blood samples were collected just before (0) and 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 4, 6, 24, and 72h after the respective procedure(s) and analyzed for total leukocyte and differential counts, as well as plasma cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations. Blood from the 0, 0.5 and 24h collections were analyzed for many ex vivo leukocyte responses. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance with the fixed effects of treatment, time, and the interaction of treatment×time. Pre-planned contrasts were performed to determine the effect of (1) management procedure (castration and/(or) dehorning), (2) anesthetic/analgesic, and (3) were the management procedures additive. There were treatment×time interactions (P<0.05) on plasma cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations as well as for total leukocyte and neutrophil concentrations in blood. Castration and dehorning increased cortisol concentrations and the effect of the procedures was additive (P<0.02). Dehorning alone elicited a greater (P<0.05) cortisol response than castration alone. In contrast, the leukocytosis and neutrophilia was greater (P<0.01) among castrated calves. In addition, haptoglobin concentrations at 24h after castration were elevated (P<0.01) in calves that were castrated. Both castration and dehorning suppressed (P=0.04) many leukocyte responses including the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α when whole blood cultures were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, surface expression of l-selectin on peripheral blood neutrophils, and the oxidative burst intensity of peripheral blood neutrophils when co-cultured with an Escherichia coli. The effects of castration and dehorning on blood leukocyte counts or any of the leukocyte responses were not additive (P>0.23). Castration and dehorning effects of plasma haptoglobin concentrations tended (P=0.10) to be additive at 72h after the procedure(s). Prior administration of local anesthetic and a systemic analgesic attenuated (P<0.001) the cortisol response and prevented (P=0.03) the observed leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and leukocyte suppression. These data suggest that calves should be castrated and dehorned on the same day rather than spreading them out across two days and calves should be administered pain relief prior to performing either procedure.Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 12/2012; · 1.88 Impact Factor