Analgesic drug administration and attitudes about analgesia in cattle among bovine practitioners in the United States.
ABSTRACT To determine current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and to identify factors associated with these attitudes and practices.
Web-based survey. Sample-3,019 US members of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) with e-mail addresses.
Veterinarians were invited via e-mail to participate in a Web-based survey. Respondents replied to questions related to pain and analgesia and supplied personal, professional, and demographic information. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, and associations among various factors were examined.
666 surveys (25.5% response rate) were analyzed. Among common procedures and medical conditions of cattle listed on the survey, castration of dairy calves < 6 months old was subjectively estimated as causing the least pain; abdominal surgery, toxic mastitis, and dehorning of calves > 6 months old were assessed as causing the greatest pain. Respondents reported not providing analgesic drugs to approximately 70% of calves castrated at < 6 months of age. The most commonly administered analgesics were NSAIDs, local anesthetics, and α(2)-adrenergic receptor agonists. Significant associations were detected among respondent characteristics and pain ratings, percentages of cattle treated, and opinions regarding analgesia.
Results provide information on current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and can be considered in the development of policies and protocols for pain management in cattle. These data can be compared with those of future studies to examine changes over time.
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ABSTRACT: The objective was to measure effects of cooling technique (shade vs. water sprinklers) on performance, behavior, physiology, and the environmental effect of 40 Holstein heifers housed in drylot corrals during the hot summer months. The experiment was a replicated crossover design with four 21-d periods and 2 treatments: 1) shades installed in the front half of the pen or 2) sprinklers, which applied water to the pen surface at 2-h intervals from 1100 to 1900 h. Animal performance measures were dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency (gain:feed). Behavioral measures, elimination patterns, and corral spatial distribution were measured in 5-min scan frequencies over four 24-h periods. Physiological measures were rectal temperature, respiration rate, urinary urea N, and blood urea N. Environmental measures were corral soil surface temperature and moisture, particulate matter, and surface NH(3) volatilization; meteorological measures were also collected. Shaded compared with sprinkled heifers had increased dry matter intake (3.4%), increased average daily gain (14%), and increased feed efficiency (11%). Heifers in shaded vs. sprinkler treatments had decreased respiration rates (13%). Behavioral differences between the treatments varied by time of day. Heifers spent most time in either the shaded or sprinkled areas of their corrals (65.9 and 64.2%, respectively). Elimination behavior occurred predominantly at the front of the corral in close proximity to the feed bunks and additionally at the water trough in sprinkled corrals. Sprinkler treatment had a 31.7% greater average corral surface moisture than the shaded treatment. Corral surface temperature varied based on areas of surface moisture, shade location, and elimination concentration within the corral. Sprinkled corrals had less particulate matter emissions than shaded (25%), but NH(3) emissions were 46% greater in sprinkler vs. shaded treatment. Overall, the use of shade in heifer corrals improved heifer performance and physiological measures, but sprinkler treatment had less PM [corrected] emissions from corral surfaces under heat stress conditions. Both cooling techniques affected spatial distribution and behaviors of the heifers, which affected pen usage and surface characteristics.Journal of Dairy Science 03/2009; 92(2):506-17. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The frequency of prescribing analgesics and administering them for the treatment of apparent postoperative pain in 243 dogs and 15 cats was evaluated. Surgeries performed on the animals evaluated included limb amputations, limb-sparing bone cancer resection, thoracotomy, cervical vertebral instability repair, and humeral fracture repair. Only 1 cat was treated once with an analgesic after surgery, and cats were not evaluated statistically. Dogs undergoing amputation, limb salvage procedure, or thoracotomy were more likely to be treated than dogs undergoing the other surgeries. Ninety-six (40%) of the 243 dogs were under the influence of an analgesic at any time during their postoperative hospital stay, and 69 dogs (28%) received 1 or more doses of an analgesic after recovery from general anesthesia. One hundred thirty-three dogs were cared for in the intensive care unit (ICU) immediately after surgery. Written instructions for treatment with an analgesic were given for 61 of those dogs, and 50 were given at least 1 dose of the prescribed analgesic. Dogs cared for in the ICU were twice as likely to be given an analgesic as dogs cared for in the surgery ward. The estimated duration of analgesic effect exceeded 8 hours in 46 (19%) of 243 dogs. Small and juvenile dogs were least likely to be treated. Interns and residents were twice as likely as faculty to administer analgesics. Most written interpretations of pain behavior observed in the ICU were made on the basis of vocalizations. Half of the dogs for which medical record comments suggested moderate to severe pain were not given an analgesic. The most frequently administered analgesic immediately following surgery was oxymorphone, followed by butorphanol and morphine. Aspirin was never administered to dogs in the ICU, but was used in 10 dogs that were in the surgery ward for > 74 hours.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 05/1993; 202(9):1485-94. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Four hundred and seventeen Canadian veterinarians were surveyed to determine their postoperative use of analgesics in dogs and cats following 6 surgical procedures, and to determine their opinions toward pain perception and perceived complications associated with the postoperative use of potent opioid analgesics. Three hundred and seventeen (76%) returned the questionnaire. The percentage of animals receiving analgesics postoperatively ranged from 84% of dogs and 70% of cats following orthopedic surgery to 10% of dogs and 9% of cats following castration. In general, with the exception of orthopedic surgery, roughly equal percentages of dogs and cats received postoperative analgesics. Opioids were used almost exclusively to provide postoperative analgesia, with butorphanol the most commonly administered drug to both dogs and cats. Analgesics were usually administered either once or twice postoperatively. With regard to the administration of potent opioid agonists, the 3 major concerns included respiratory depression, bradycardia, and sedation in dogs, and excitement, respiratory depression, and bradycardia in cats. Seventy-seven percent of veterinarians considered their knowledge of issues related to the recognition and control of postoperative pain to be inadequate. Experience in practice is currently the major source of knowledge, with undergraduate veterinary school and research articles in journals ranked as the least important sources. Lectures or seminars delivered at the regional level were the preferred format for continuing education.The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue veterinaire canadienne 10/1996; 37(9):546-51. · 0.77 Impact Factor