Transoral robotic surgery of the tongue base in obstructive sleep Apnea-Hypopnea syndrome: anatomic considerations and clinical experience.
ABSTRACT The purpose of our work was to describe, through cadaveric dissection, the anatomy of the tongue base with a robotic perspective and to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in case of tongue base hypertrophy in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS).
Forty-four patients with OSAHS underwent tongue base resection in the last 2 years. Twenty patients with a 10-month minimum follow-up were evaluated. The anatomic details of 3 tongue bases dissected from above are illustrated.
The cadaveric study shows that no constant landmarks are identifiable, with no significant neurovascular structures present in the midline. Clinically, transoral robotic surgery (TORS) for the tongue base was feasible, with no major complications and satisfaction of the majority of patients. Mean apnea hypopnea index (AHI) improvement was 24.6 ± 22.2 SD, mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) improvement was 5.9 ± 4.4 SD.
Tongue base hypertrophy can be safely and effectively managed by TORS in OSAHS. Our midterm data are encouraging and worthy of further evaluation.
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ABSTRACT: To develop a minimally invasive surgical technique for the treatment of base of tongue neoplasms using the optical and technical advantages of robotic surgical instrumentation. Ten experimental procedures including tongue base exposure and dissections were performed on three cadavers and two mongrel dogs. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) was then performed on three human patients with tongue base cancers in a prospective human trial. Using the da Vinci Surgical Robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA), we performed a total of 10 base of tongue resections on edentulous and dentate cadavers as well as live mongrel dogs. In the cadaver models, exposure was evaluated using three different retractors, the Dingman, Crowe Davis, and FK retractors. The three human patients underwent TORS surgery of their tongue base cancers under an institutional review board approved prospective clinical trial. The ability to identify and preserve or resect key anatomic structures such as the glossopharyngeal, hypoglossal, and lingual nerves as well as techniques for identifying the lingual artery and achieving hemostasis were developed. The da Vinci Surgical Robot provided excellent visualization and enabled removal of the posterior one third to one half of the oral tongue in cadavers, dogs, and human patients. Among the three retractors evaluated, the FK retractor offered the greatest versatility and overall exposure for robotic instrument maneuverability. Complete resection to negative surgical margins with excellent hemostasis and no complications was achieved in the live patient surgeries. TORS provided excellent three-dimensional visualization and instrument access that allowed successful surgical resections from cadaver models to human patients. TORS is a novel and minimally invasive approach to tongue neoplasms that has significant advantages over classic open surgery or endoscopic transoral laser surgery.The Laryngoscope 09/2006; 116(8):1465-72. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We assessed the feasibility of performing transoral supraglottic partial laryngectomy with robotic instrumentation. Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) was performed on 3 human patients with supraglottic carcinoma in a prospective human trial. The study was approved by our institutional review board and involved the da Vinci Surgical Robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, California). All procedures were completed robotically. The median overall operation time to perform the robotic procedure was 120 minutes (range, 1:32:48 to 2:58:18), including 18 minutes (range, 00:6:07 to 00:30:39) for exposure and robotic positioning. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications or surgical mortality. The preliminary results of our series suggest that application of the da Vinci robotic surgical system for TORS to supraglottic partial laryngectomy is technically feasible and relatively safe. Furthermore, TORS provides excellent surgical exposure that allows complete tumor resection. Most importantly, TORS provides an alternative to open approaches and "conventional" transoral supraglottic partial laryngectomy.The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology 02/2007; 116(1):19-23. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing is prevalent in the general population and has been linked to chronically elevated blood pressure in cross-sectional epidemiologic studies. We performed a prospective, population-based study of the association between objectively measured sleep-disordered breathing and hypertension (defined as a laboratory-measured blood pressure of at least 140/90 mm Hg or the use of antihypertensive medications). We analyzed data on sleep-disordered breathing, blood pressure, habitus, and health history at base line and after four years of follow-up in 709 participants of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (and after eight years of follow-up in the case of 184 of these participants). Participants were assessed overnight by 18-channel polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing, as defined by the apnea-hypopnea index (the number of episodes of apnea and hypopnea per hour of sleep). The odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at the four-year follow-up study according to the apnea-hypopnea index at base line were estimated after adjustment for base-line hypertension status, body-mass index, neck and waist circumference, age, sex, and weekly use of alcohol and cigarettes. Relative to the reference category of an apnea-hypopnea index of 0 events per hour at base line, the odds ratios for the presence of hypertension at follow-up were 1.42 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.78) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 0.1 to 4.9 events per hour at base line as compared with none, 2.03 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.29 to 3.17) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 5.0 to 14.9 events per hour, and 2.89 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.46 to 5.64) with an apnea-hypopnea index of 15.0 or more events per hour. We found a dose-response association between sleep-disordered breathing at base line and the presence of hypertension four years later that was independent of known confounding factors. The findings suggest that sleep-disordered breathing is likely to be a risk factor for hypertension and consequent cardiovascular morbidity in the general population.New England Journal of Medicine 06/2000; 342(19):1378-84. · 51.66 Impact Factor