MicroRNA profiles of prostate carcinoma detected by multiplatform microRNA screening
ABSTRACT MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression via posttranscriptional inhibition of protein synthesis. They play a vital role in tumorigenesis. To characterize the diagnostic potential of miRNAs in prostate cancer, a leading cause of cancer mortality, we performed screening of miRNA expression profiles. We used commercially available microarrays to establish miRNA expression profiles from a cohort of 20 cancer samples. The expression of selected miRNAs was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR and the identity of miRNA expressing cells was determined by miRNA in situ hybridization. We identified 25 miRNAs that showed a significant differential expression in cancer samples. The comparison with previously published data generated by deep sequencing of cDNA libraries of small RNA molecules revealed a concordance rate of 47% among miRNAs identified with both techniques. The differential expression of miRNAs miR-375, miR-143 and miR-145 was validated by quantitative PCR. MiRNA in situ hybridization revealed that the differential expression is cancer-cell associated. A combination of three miRNAs correctly classified tissue samples with an accuracy of 77.6% with an area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve of 0.810. Our data extend the knowledge about the deregulation of miRNAs in prostate cancer. The differential expression of several miRNAs is highly consistent using independent cohorts of tumor samples, different tissue preservation methods and different experimental methods. Our results indicate that combinations of miRNAs are promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa), a highly incident and heterogeneous malignancy, mostly affects men from developed countries. Increased knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying PCa onset and progression are critical for improved clinical management. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) deregulation is common in human cancers, and understanding how it impacts in PCa is of major importance. MiRNAs are mostly downregulated in cancer, although some are overexpressed, playing a critical role in tumor initiation and progression. We aimed to identify miRNAs overexpressed in PCa and subsequently determine its impact in tumorigenesis. MicroRNA expression profiling in primary PCa and morphological normal prostate (MNPT) tissues identified 17 miRNAs significantly overexpressed in PCa. Expression of three miRNAs, not previously associated with PCa, was subsequently assessed in large independent sets of primary tumors, in which miR-182 and miR-375 were validated, but not miR-32. Significantly higher expression levels of miR-375 were depicted in patients with higher Gleason score and more advanced pathological stage, as well as with regional lymph nodes metastases. Forced expression of miR-375 in PC-3 cells, which display the lowest miR-375 levels among PCa cell lines, increased apoptosis and reduced invasion ability and cell viability. Intriguingly, in 22Rv1 cells, which displayed the highest miR-375 expression, knockdown experiments also attenuated the malignant phenotype. Gene ontology analysis implicated miR-375 in several key pathways deregulated in PCa, including cell cycle and cell differentiation. Moreover, CCND2 was identified as putative miR-375 target in PCa, confirmed by luciferase assay. A dual role for miR-375 in prostate cancer progression is suggested, highlighting the importance of cellular context on microRNA targeting.12/2015; 7(1). DOI:10.1186/s13148-015-0076-2
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ABSTRACT: microRNAs, a class of small non-coding RNAs, regulate protein-coding gene expression by repressing translation or cleaving RNA transcripts in a sequence-specific manner. A growing body of evidence suggests that microRNAs contribute to prostate cancer development, progression and metastasis. Based on reports describing microRNA expression signatures, several differentially expressed microRNAs have been discovered. In the present review, eight genome-wide microRNA expression signatures were used to select aberrantly expressed microRNAs (i.e. upregulated and downregulated microRNAs) in prostate cancer clinical specimens. Also, we mapped these selected microRNAs in the human genome. Interestingly, some clustered microRNAs, such as miR-221/222, miR-143/145, miR-23b/27b/24-1 and miR-1/133a, are frequently downregulated in cancer tissues, and recent studies have shown that these clustered microRNAs function as tumor suppressors. We also discuss the functional significance of the differentially expressed microRNAs and the molecular pathways/targets regulated by these microRNAs. These recent findings of microRNAs in prostate cancer will facilitate the development of effective strategies for microRNA-based therapeutics for the treatment of prostate cancer. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.International Journal of Urology 01/2015; 22(3). DOI:10.1111/iju.12700 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the current study, expression levels of let-7c, miR-30c, miR-141, and miR-375 in plasma from 59 prostate cancer (PC) patients with different clinicopathological characteristics and two groups of controls: 16 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples and 11 young asymptomatic men (YAM) were analyzed to evaluate their diagnostic and prognostic value in comparison to prostate-specific antigen (PSA). miR-375 was significantly downregulated in 83.5% of patients compared to BPH controls and showed stronger diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve [AUC]=0.809, 95% CI: 0.697-0.922, p=0.00016) compared with PSA (AUC=0.710, 95% CI: 0.559-0.861, p=0.013). Expression levels of let-7c showed potential to distinguish PC patients from BPH controls with AUC=0.757, but the result did not reach significance. Better discriminating performance was observed when combinations of studied biomarkers were used. Sensitivity of 86.8% and specificity of 81.8% were reached when all biomarkers were combined (AUC=0.877) and YAM were used as calibrators. None of the studied microRNAs (miRNAs) showed correlation with clinicopathological characteristics. PSA levels were significantly correlated with the Gleason score, tumor stage, and lymph node metastasis with Spearman correlation coefficients: 0.612, 0.576, and 0.458. In conclusion, the combination of the studied circulating plasma miRNAs and serum PSA has the potential to be used as a noninvasive diagnostic biomarker for PC screening outperforming the PSA testing alone.DNA and Cell Biology 12/2014; 34(3). DOI:10.1089/dna.2014.2663 · 1.99 Impact Factor