Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Canada.
International Journal of Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.03). 03/2011; 38(5):1319-27. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.965
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.

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    • ". Flow cytometry analysis of the drugged HepG2 cells (GLP: 2000 ␮g/mL). inhibited epithelial ovarian cancer and induced the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase (Zhao et al., 2011). Ganoderic acids from mycelia of G. lucidum affected HeLa cells in different ways: the ganoderic acid S caused cell cycle arrest at S phase, while another ganoderic acid Mf caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase (Liu et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The antitumor activity of intracellular polysaccharides from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum was investigated focusing on the inhibition on human liver cancer cells. The polysaccharides inhibited human hepatocarcinoma cell HepG2 during earlier phase with lower dosage but obviously became less functional in later phase regardless of the dosage applied. However, apoptosis of the drugged HepG2 cells appeared in later incubation phase with high dosage, and the apoptosis could be enhanced by supplemental dose of the intracellular polysaccharides. Nevertheless, the intracellular polysaccharides inhibited other human hepatocarcinoma cells such as BEL-7402 and Huh-7 but luckily stimulated human normal liver cell L02 only in a positive dose- and time-dependent manner; so did the sulfated extracellular polysaccharides when it inhibited HepG2 and L02 cells. However, the toxicity of sulfated extracellular polysaccharides to L02 cells can be eliminated by the intracellular polysaccharides.
    10/2012; 90(3):1210-5. DOI:10.1016/j.carbpol.2012.06.043
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    • "Stop cell cycle at G2/M phase, activate caspase-3, induce apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells Zhao et al., 2011 Prevent the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci in chemical colon carcinogenesis Lu et al., 2001, 2002, 2003 Activate TLR4 in murine macrophage and B cells, and human DC cells Hsu et al., 2004; Shao et al., 2004 Ligands Polysaccharides bind to TLR4 on macrophages and activate ERK, JNK and p38 Chen et al., 2004 Induce death receptor ligands (TRAIL) Cheng et al., 2007 Increase the ability to enhance priming of T lymphocytes Cao & Lin 2002 "
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    ABSTRACT: Camargo MR, Kaneno R. Antitumor Properties of Ganoderma lucidum Polysaccharides and Terpenoids. ARBS Annu Rev Biomed Sci 2011;13:1-8. Ganoderma lucidum is an edible medicinal mushroom with immunomodulatory and antitumor properties, which are mainly attributed to polysaccharides and triterpenes that can be isolated from mycelia, fruiting bodies and spores. G. lucidum has been used in a powdered form, as a medicinal beverage and a nutraceutical food (usually dried). In the present review we report some historical facts and the experimental evidence that polysaccharides and triterpenes obtained from this mushroom present potential antitumor activity. Direct effects on tumor cells include induction of apoptosis and interference in the cell cycle, whereas indirect effects are based on the modulation of immune response, usually impaired by cancer cells. Data indicate that G. lucidum can be used as a complementary tool for treatment of cancer patients.
    Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: ETHONOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in terms of mortality and incidence worldwide. Despite intensive research and investigation, treatment of lung cancer is still unsatisfactory due to adverse effects and multidrug resistance. Recently, herbal drugs have been recognized as one of attractive approaches for lung cancer therapy with little side effects. Furthermore, there are evidences that various herbal medicines have proven to be useful and effective in sensitizing conventional agents, prolonging survival time, preventing side effects of chemotherapy, and improving quality of life (QoL) in lung cancer patients. AIM AND METHODS OF THE STUDY: Nevertheless, the underlying molecular targets and efficacy of herbal medicines in lung cancer treatment still remain unclear. Thus, we reviewed traditionally used herbal medicines and their phytochemicals with antitumor activity against lung cancer from peer-reviewed papers through Scientific Database Medline, Scopus and Google scholar. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that herbal medicines and phytochemicals can be useful anti-cancer agents for lung cancer treatment by targeting molecular signaling involved in the regulation of angiogenesis, metastasis and severe side effects, only provided quality control and reproducibility issues were solved.
    Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2011; 138(3):652-61. DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2011.10.018 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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