Ganoderma lucidum exerts anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and enhances their sensitivity to cisplatin

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, Canada.
International Journal of Oncology (Impact Factor: 3.03). 03/2011; 38(5):1319-27. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2011.965
Source: PubMed


Ganoderma lucidum is a herbal mushroom known to have many health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. However, the effect of Ganoderma lucidum on epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the most fatal gynecological malignancy, has not yet been reported. In this study, we determined whether Ganoderma lucidum regulates EOC cell activity. Using several cell lines derived from EOC, we found that Ganoderma lucidum strongly decreased cell numbers in a dose-dependent manner. Ganoderma lucidum also inhibited colony formation, cell migration and spheroid formation. In particular, Ganoderma lucidum was effective in inhibiting cell growth in both chemosensitive and chemoresistant cells and the treatment with Ganoderma lucidum significantly enhanced the effect of cisplatin on EOC cells. Furthermore, Ganoderma lucidum induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and also induced apoptosis by activating caspase 3. Finally, Ganoderma lucidum increased p53 but inhibited Akt expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that Ganoderma lucidum exerts multiple anti-tumor effects on ovarian cancer cells and can enhance the sensitivity of EOC cells to cisplatin.


Available from: Guodong Fu, Feb 10, 2014
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    • "A total of 80,708 SSRs were identified in the Clementine mandarin genome (Table S1). Given the estimated 301 Mb size of the Clementine mandarin genome [8], the SSR density was 268 per Mb in the DNA sequence of Clementine mandarin. This observed SSR frequency in the Clementine mandarin genome was lower than those reported for other plant species [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are one of the most popular sources of genetic markers and play a significant role in plant genetics and breeding. In this study, we identified citrus SSRs in the genome of Clementine mandarin and analyzed their frequency and distribution in different genomic regions. A total of 80,708 SSRs were detected in the genome with an overall density of 268 SSRs/Mb. While di-nucleotide repeats were the most frequent microsatellites in genomic DNA sequence, tetra-nucleotides, which had more repeat units than any other SSR types, had the highest cumulative sequence length. We identified 6,834 transcripts as containing 8,989 SSRs in 33,929 Clementine mandarin transcripts, among which, tri-nucleotide motifs (36.0%) were the most common, followed by di-nucleotide (26.9%) and hexa-nucleotide motifs (15.1%). The motif AG (16.7%) was most abundant among these SSRs, while motifs AAG (6.6%), AAT (5.0%), and TAG (2.2%) were most common among tri-nucleotides. Functional categorization of transcripts containing SSRs revealed that 5,879 (86.0%) of such transcripts had homology with known proteins, GO and KEGG annotation revealed that transcripts containing SSRs were those implicated in diverse biological processes in plants, including binding, development, transcription, and protein degradation. When 27 genomic and 78 randomly selected SSRs were tested on Clementine mandarin, 95 SSRs revealed polymorphism. These 95 SSRs were further deployed on 18 genotypes of the three generas of Rutaceae for the genetic diversity assessment, genomic SSRs generally show low transferability in comparison to SSRs developed from expressed sequences. These transcript-markers identified in our study may provide a valuable genetic and genomic tool for further genetic research and varietal development in citrus, such as diversity study, QTL mapping, molecular breeding, comparative mapping and other genetic analyses.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e75149. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0075149 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "This mushroom is brown with concentric zones of varying shades on the cap. Named ‘Xuezhi’ in China, translated to bloody mushroom, this mushroom can be cultivated in the same farm that produces Ganoderma lucidum for our studies [13], [14]. When screening bioactive medicinal mushrooms for anti-cancer activity, we unexpectedly found that Amauroderma rude possessed the highest activity in inducing cancer cell death. "
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    ABSTRACT: More and more medicinal mushrooms have been widely used as a miraculous herb for health promotion, especially by cancer patients. Here we report screening thirteen mushrooms for anti-cancer cell activities in eleven different cell lines. Of the herbal products tested, we found that the extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity in killing most of these cancer cell lines. Amauroderma rude is a fungus belonging to the Ganodermataceae family. The Amauroderma genus contains approximately 30 species widespread throughout the tropical areas. Since the biological function of Amauroderma rude is unknown, we examined its anti-cancer effect on breast carcinoma cell lines. We compared the anti-cancer activity of Amauroderma rude and Ganoderma lucidum, the most well-known medicinal mushrooms with anti-cancer activity and found that Amauroderma rude had significantly higher activity in killing cancer cells than Ganoderma lucidum. We then examined the effect of Amauroderma rude on breast cancer cells and found that at low concentrations, Amauroderma rude could inhibit cancer cell survival and induce apoptosis. Treated cancer cells also formed fewer and smaller colonies than the untreated cells. When nude mice bearing tumors were injected with Amauroderma rude extract, the tumors grew at a slower rate than the control. Examination of these tumors revealed extensive cell death, decreased proliferation rate as stained by Ki67, and increased apoptosis as stained by TUNEL. Suppression of c-myc expression appeared to be associated with these effects. Taken together, Amauroderma rude represented a powerful medicinal mushroom with anti-cancer activities.
    PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e66504. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0066504 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • ". Flow cytometry analysis of the drugged HepG2 cells (GLP: 2000 ␮g/mL). inhibited epithelial ovarian cancer and induced the cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase (Zhao et al., 2011). Ganoderic acids from mycelia of G. lucidum affected HeLa cells in different ways: the ganoderic acid S caused cell cycle arrest at S phase, while another ganoderic acid Mf caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase (Liu et al., 2011). "
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