Label-free quantification of membrane-ligand interactions using backscattering interferometry
ABSTRACT Although membrane proteins are ubiquitous within all living organisms and represent the majority of drug targets, a general method for direct, label-free measurement of ligand binding to native membranes has not been reported. Here we show that backscattering interferometry (BSI) can accurately quantify ligand-receptor binding affinities in a variety of membrane environments. By detecting minute changes in the refractive index of a solution, BSI allows binding interactions of proteins with their ligands to be measured at picomolar concentrations. Equilibrium binding constants in the micromolar to picomolar range were obtained for small- and large-molecule interactions in both synthetic and cell-derived membranes without the use of labels or supporting substrates. The simple and low-cost hardware, high sensitivity and label-free nature of BSI should make it readily applicable to the study of many membrane-associated proteins of biochemical and pharmacological interest.
SourceAvailable from: Saliya N Ratnayaka[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with affinity capture is a well-established method to extract biological analytes from complex samples followed by label-free detection and identification. Many bioanalytes of interest bind to membrane-associated receptors; however, the matrices and high-vacuum conditions inherent to MALDI-TOF MS make it largely incompatible with the use of artificial lipid membranes with incorporated receptors as platforms for detection of captured proteins and peptides. Here we show that cross-linking polymerization of a planar supported lipid bilayer (PSLB) provides the stability needed for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteins captured by receptors embedded in the membrane. PSLBs composed of poly(bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine) (poly(bis-SorbPC)) and doped with the ganglioside receptors GM1 and GD1a were used for affinity capture of the B subunits of cholera toxin, heat-labile enterotoxin, and pertussis toxin. The three toxins were captured simultaneously, then detected and identified by MS on the basis of differences in their molecular weights. Poly(bis-SorbPC) PSLBs are inherently resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, which allowed selective toxin detection to be achieved in complex matrices (bovine serum and shrimp extract). Using GM1-cholera toxin subunit B as a model receptor-ligand pair, we estimated the minimal detectable concentration of toxin to be 4 nM. On-plate tryptic digestion of bound cholera toxin subunit B followed by MS/MS analysis of digested peptides was performed successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of using the PSLB-based affinity capture platform for identification of unknown, membrane-associated proteins. Overall, this work demonstrates that combining a poly(lipid) affinity capture platform with MALDI-TOF MS detection is a viable approach for capture and proteomic characterization of membrane-associated proteins in a label-free manner.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2015; 407(10). DOI:10.1007/s00216-015-8508-6 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In a fluorescence polarization screen for the MYC-MAX interaction, we have identified a novel small-molecule inhibitor of MYC, KJ-Pyr-9, from a Kröhnke pyridine library. The Kd of KJ-Pyr-9 for MYC in vitro is 6.5 ± 1.0 nM, as determined by backscattering interferometry; KJ-Pyr-9 also interferes with MYC-MAX complex formation in the cell, as shown in a protein fragment complementation assay. KJ-Pyr-9 specifically inhibits MYC-induced oncogenic transformation in cell culture; it has no or only weak effects on the oncogenic activity of several unrelated oncoproteins. KJ-Pyr-9 preferentially interferes with the proliferation of MYC-overexpressing human and avian cells and specifically reduces the MYC-driven transcriptional signature. In vivo, KJ-Pyr-9 effectively blocks the growth of a xenotransplant of MYC-amplified human cancer cells.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2014; 111(34). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1319488111 · 9.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Invasion of host erythrocytes by Plasmodium falciparum is central to the pathogenesis of malaria. Invasion involves recognition events between erythrocyte receptors and ligands on the merozoite, the invasive blood form of the parasite. Identifying and characterizing host-parasite interactions is impeded by the biochemical challenges of working with membrane-embedded glycoprotein receptors. For example, the interaction between P. falciparum erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (PfEBA175) and glycophorin A (GYPA) depends on post-translational modifications that are not easily added in recombinant expression systems, and the use of native GYPA is limited by the hydrophobic transmembrane region, making it difficult to biochemically manipulate. It would, therefore, be desirable to perform quantitative binding assays with receptors embedded within the membranes of intact human erythrocytes. The extracellular region of GYPA was over-expressed as a soluble protein in HEK293E cells. This protein was characterized, sialylated and evaluated for binding to the PfEBA175 protein. The label-free and free-solution assay, backscattering interferometry (BSI), was used to perform binding assays of two well-characterized P. falciparum invasion ligands to intact unmodified human erythrocytes. Findings indicate that the post-translational modifications present on native GYPA are required for it to bind recombinant PfEBA175 and that these modifications cannot be recapitulated in vitro using mammalian overexpression methods. Here, BSI was used to obtain quantitative, high fidelity interaction determinations on intact, unmodified erythrocytes. Using BSI and purified recombinant proteins constituting the entire ectodomains of the P. falciparum merozoite ligands PfEBA175 and PfRH5, K Ds of 1.1 μM and 50 nM were measured for the PfRH5-BSG and PfEBA175-GYPA interactions, respectively, in good agreement with previous biophysical measurements of these interactions. These results demonstrate that BSI can be used to detect and quantify the interactions of two merozoite invasion ligands with their receptors on intact human erythrocytes. BSI assays were performed on unlabelled, free-solution proteins in their native environment, requiring only nanomoles of recombinant protein. This study suggests that BSI can be used to investigate host-parasite protein interactions without the limitations of other assay platforms, and therefore represents a valuable new method to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in erythrocyte invasion by P. falciparum.Malaria Journal 12/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.1186/s12936-015-0553-2 · 3.49 Impact Factor